Fungi- Cell Structure

Fungi belong to the group of Eukaryotes

Fungi are eukaryotes and have complex cellular organisation. Eg; Yeasts, moulds, mushrooms, etc.

Hence, most of the organelles present in fungal cells are similar to those of other eukaryotes.

The composition of the cell wall is variable among different types of fungi.

The cell wall is a multilayered complex of polysaccharides, lipids, glycoproteins & proteins.

The major components of the fungal cell wall, which are required to maintain structural integrity are chitin & glucans.

Chitin, also known as fungal cellulose, is a polysaccharide-based on nitrogen-containing sugar N-acetylglucosamine.

Cell wall maintains the rigidity & integrity of cells & provides support & protection to the protoplast.

Protoplast is differentiated into its usual parts like cytoplasm, cell membrane & various organelles

Protoplast lacks chloroplasts & chlorophyll. Hence, the fungus is heterotrophs, unlike plants.

The plasma membrane is a delicate, extremely thin membrane that forms the surface layer of protoplast.

The colorless cytoplasm is present within the cell membrane & may contain sap filled vacuoles.

Various cell organelles & inclusions are found immersed in the fungal cytoplasm

The cell organelles are living structures with specific functions whereas, inclusions are dead with a specific function.

Lomasomes are membranous structures found between cell wall & plasma membrane.

The other cell organelles within the cytoplasm are endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, ribosomes & vacuoles.

The endoplasmic reticulum is composed of microtubular structures & is linked with ribosomes.

The fungal mitochondria are small, spherical, double-membrane bodies immersed in the cytoplasm.

Also, the dictyosomes (Golgi Bodies) are found to be uni-cisternal in many fungi.

The fungal cytoplasm also contains chitosomes. These are small vesicles found near hyphal tips & contains cell wall material, chitin.

The fungal nuclei are smaller as compared to the other eukaryotes. The reserve food is in the form of oils & glycogen. Also, fungal cells do not contain plastids.

Revision

The fungus is a eukaryotic organism & contains most of the organelles similar to other eukaryotes. Examples of fungi; moulds.

The major components of cell wall are chitin & glucans. The protoplast contains cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclei & cell organelles.

Various organelles immersed in the cytoplasm are mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, chitosomes, etc.

The END