Important features of the Indian constitution

The constitution of India came into effect on January 26, 1950. Let us learn about what makes our constitution so special!

The universal adult franchise

The first and foremost feature of the Indian constitution is the universal adult franchise.

It meant that every citizen above the age of 21 was allowed to vote.

This could be done in state and national elections, and was a great step.

It was revolutionary, as this was the first time that Indians were allowed to choose their own leaders.

In the USA, for example, this right was granted in different stages.

Only men of property had voting rights initially. Then educated people were also given these rights.

Finally, after long struggles, working class men, and all women were given the right.

India’s constitution was special, as it gave this right to each and every citizen.

As of now, the legal voting age has been brought down to 18 years.

Equality before law

The constitution of India grants equality before law to all its citizens.

This is regardless of their religion, gender, caste, or other factors.

There were some people, however, who wanted India to be a Hindu country.

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first PM of India, did not agree with this thought.

India also had a large population of Christians, Sikhs, and Parsis.

Under the Indian constitution, all communities would be treated equally in all aspects, such as job opportunities, legal rules, and such.

Privilege to the poor

Indian constitution offered special privileges to the poor and oppressed section of citizens.

The practice of untouchability was abolished.

Hindu temples used to be open only for the upper caste people.

After the constitution came into effect, they were opened for all, no matter what caste.

The constituent assembly also recommended reserving a certain number of seats in jobs and legislatures for the lowest caste citizens.

Along with them, adivasis or Scheduled Tribes were also given reservation.

The new constitution fixed the wrongs done on the lower caste members by providing them means to progress.


The constitution of India came into effect on 26 January, 1950.

It promised universal adult franchise, that is, the right to vote in elections for all citizens above 21 years old. Later on, the age was decreased to 18.

It also promised equality before law for all citizens, no matter their caste, religion, or social status.

The practice of untouchability was also abolished.