Introduction of Civil Disobedience Movement

We often see children disobeying their parents

They do so when they are not allowed to do something, or they don’t get what they want

Similarly, the British imposed unjust laws on Indians, which the Indians disobeyed.

Indians launched a movement to disobey the unjust laws of British

Movement are social campaigns which brings change in society

That movement to disobey the British unjust laws was the Civil Disobedience Movement

Civil disobedience is refusing to follow the laws of the government

The movement brought people from all over the nation together.

Let us see what sparked the beginning of such a big movement

Earlier, Congress had launched a movement known as the Non-Cooperation Movement

In this movement, people were told to resist and not cooperate with British rule

Non-cooperation movement started in 1919 and came to an end by 1922

Gandhi called off this movement when violence broke out

Many leaders also wanted to change the situation by being a part of the government

So they wanted to take part in elections and frame policies suitable to the country and not British

In 1928, the British sent a commission to India to bring changes in the constitution

The commission was known as Simon Commission

Congress protested against this commission as it didn’t have Indians in it

As the commission didn’t work out, Lord Irwin promised dominion status to India

Dominion status meant India would be semi-independent

Indians were to be given power but not completely

To discuss dominion status, Lord Irwin arranged a Round Table conference

But Congress wasn’t happy with it and avoided the conference

Later, in December 1929, Congress declared their main goal, Purna Swaraj

Purna Swaraj meant complete independence

Congress celebrated the First independence day on 26th January 1930.

It was during these celebrations that Tri-Color flag was first hoisted

But the celebrations weren’t enough to spread the idea of complete freedom

So they decided to start a movement which would spread the idea of complete independence

But they didn’t start a movement immediately and Gandhi didn’t want to start a movement only to spread one idea

So, on 31 January 1930, Gandhi sent a list of clauses to Lord Irwin

They consisted of various unjust laws imposed on Indians, which needed to be abolished

The list also mentioned that Congress would start a civil disobedience movement

This was in case their demands were not fulfilled by Lord Irwin

Lord Irwin rejected their demands

Gandhi ,therefore, started Dandi march on 12 March 1930

He reached Dandi by 6 April, made salt using sea water, and broke the salt law

By breaking the salt law, Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience movement

The movement spread all over the country and people were asked to break the unjust laws

Taxes were not paid, foreign products were boycotted, officials resigned etc

Boycott is refusing to use or buy something as a way of protest

Thousands of people, Congress leaders, including Gandhi were arrested

It came to an end on 5 march 1931, when Gandhi-Irwin signed a pact

A Pact is when two parties enter into an agreement

All the prisoners arrested during this movement were released and salt tax was abolished

But the pact proved to be disappointing to the Indians

So, Gandhi relaunched the civil disobedience movement

But the movement wasn’t so effective as earlier

The government arrested people and was able to contain the movement

Also, people weren’t actively participating in the civil disobedience movement after its relaunch

The movement started losing its effect by end of 1932 and it came to an end in 1934

The end.