Introduction to pollination.
Pollen grains need to be transferred to the female part of the flower for the development of the seed.
Let us see how the pollen grains are transferred.
Pollination is a method where pollen grains are picked from an anther (male part of the flower) and transferred to the stigma (female part of the flower).
Pollination can take place between different flowers of the same kind or different plants or in the same flower.
For the pollination to work successfully, the pollen grains must be transferred from the same species of flower.
Let us understand the process of pollination.
The process of pollination begins when the pollen grains land on the stigma and form a pollen tube with the style length, which connects both the stigma and the ovary.
After the formation of the pollen tube, the pollen grains start transmitting sperm cells to the ovary.
Later, the process of fertilization takes place when the sperm cells reach the ovary.
The fertilized ovary develops into a seed that is released from the parent plant and allows it to grow into a plant.
Pollination can be either self-pollination or cross-pollination.
Let us first discuss self-pollination.
Self-pollination is referred to as the primary type of pollination, as the pollination occurs in a single flower.
It occurs when the pollen grains fall directly from the anther into the stigma of the flower.
Self-pollination can be seen in legumes like sunflowers, orchids, peanuts, oats, peas, wheat, and more.
Let us now discuss cross-pollination.
Cross-pollination occurs when the pollen is delivered from the stamen of one flower to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species.
Cross-pollination occurs with the help of agents like wind, insects, water, and others as pollinators.
Let us learn how pollination by wind takes place.
The flowers that use wind pollination are dull, small and odorless. Pollen grains are transferred through wind to the stigma of another flower.
Coconut, palm, maize, grass, and all gymnosperms are the best examples of wind-pollinated plants.
Let us learn how pollination by insects takes place.
Flowers pollinated by insects are often attracted to bright petals and fragrance.
Many of the insect-pollinated flowers also secrete nectar which attracts bees and butterflies.
Pollen grains then stick to the body of the insects and bring about pollination.
Let discuss pollination by water.
These flowers are often small and do not have any fragrance or much colour on their petals.
The pollen from the flowers of these plants is adapted to be able to float in water and thus comes in contact with other plants to bring about pollination.
is the best example of water pollination.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male part of a plant to the female part of a plant, later enabling fertilization and the production of seeds.
Self-pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of the same flower.
In cross-pollination, the pollen is transferred from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another flower of the same or different species.
There are different agents of cross-pollination like water, wind, and insects.