Introduction To Wind Currents

We often look forward to window-seats on a vehicle to experience the feeling of wind hitting our face.

The warm air blowing against our face and hair is a pleasant feeling for most of us.

The natural movement of the air in the atmosphere around us is called wind.

The intensity or the speed of the wind varies with place and time.

At times, we might experience a light breeze or a low-intensity wind.

During a storm, we face winds of extremely high intensity or velocity.

Therefore from moderate to extremely severe, the intensity of wind can vary greatly.

Now, before understanding the reason behind wind formation, let us understand what Air Pressure is.

The Air around us in the atmosphere has weight.

This weight of the air collectively in the atmosphere exerts a pressure on the surface of the Earth and it is known as Air Pressure.

This air-pressure is not uniformly distributed over the surface of the Earth.

As a result of this non-uniform distribution, there are regions where the air pressure is high, as well as regions where the pressure is low.

Now that we know about air-pressure, let us see how winds are generated.

We know that the Sun is the greatest source of Heat and Light energy for the Earth.

It is important to note that the Sun doesn't heat up the surface of the Earth evenly.

As a result of this uneven heating, there is a variation of temperature on the surface of the Earth.

As an area heats up more, the temperature of the air in that region also rises.

Subsequently, the hot air rises up and expands and as a result, it creates a low-pressure area.

On the other hand, the air with low temperature sinks closer to the ground and creates a high-pressure region.

This colder air with high pressure rushes to fill in the region of hot air(where left by the rising warm air at the low-pressure regions).

This movement of air from the high-pressure region to the low-pressure region is called WIND.

Let us see how this wind keeps generating.

The hot air which rises up and expands eventually becomes cooler.

Once the air cools down, it becomes heavy and sinks again while contracting.

This cool air rushes to fill the gap at some low-pressure region again and this process keeps repeating.

This process of warm air rising up and being replaced by cooler air is called Convection.

The wind energy flowing during Convection is called the Convectional Current.

Revision

The natural movement of the air in the atmosphere around us is called Wind.

Wind flows from a region of high air pressure to a region of low air pressure.

This process of warm air rising up and being replaced by cooler air is continuous and is called Convection.

The End