Montane and mangrove forests

Mountainous regions have very different vegetation compared to what we see in the plains or coasts. Let’s find out what kind of trees grow in the mountains!

The montane forests

Mountainous areas have different types of vegetation due to its climate.

The low temperature and high altitude mainly cause the difference in vegetation.

There is a succession of natural vegetation belts from the tropical to the tundra region order.

The types of forests

Between altitudes of 1000-2000 meters, wet temperate forests are found.

Evergreen broad-leaf trees like chestnuts and oaks are the main trees that grow here.

The temperate forests are then found between 1500-3000 meters.

These cover the southern slopes of the Himalayas, and places having high altitude in south and northeast India.

Trees like pine, deodar, cedar, and spruce are common here.

Alpine vegetation is found at heights of more than 3000 meters.

Junipers, silver fir, and pine trees are the common trees found here.

These lands are used for grazing by the nomadic tribes like the Bakarwals and Gujjars.

The animals found in montane forests

The Kashmir stag and spotted deer are commonly found in montane forests.

The wild sheep, jack rabbit, and Tibetan antelope can also be spotted here.

Thick-haired animals include the shaggy horn wild ibex, sheep, and goats.

Snow leopards, bears, and squirrels can also be found.


Mangroves are found in the coastal areas which are influenced by tides.

Roots of the trees get submerged underwater as mud and silt get accumulated on the coasts.

The deltas of rivers like Ganga, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, and Mahanadi are covered by such vegetation.

Sundari trees are found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta.

Keora, agar, ferns, orchids, and water plants like water hyacinth are found in mangroves.

The Royal Bengal tiger is found here in the mangroves.

Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.


Montane forests are those which occur in mountainous regions, where temperature is low and altitude is high.

Wet temperate forests are found at 1000-2000 meter altitude. Temperate forests are found between 1500-3000 meter altitude.

Oaks, chestnuts, pine, silver firs, and other trees are found in montane forests.

Animals like Kashmir stag, spotted antelope, wild ibex, sheep, and goats are found here.

Mangroves are found in coastal areas of India which are influenced by tides.

Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged under water.

Rivers like Godavari, Ganga, Brahmaputra, Kaveri and Krishna form deltas where mangroves occur.

In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber. Palm, coconut, keora, agar, etc., also grow in some parts of the delta.

The royal Bengal tiger is the most famous animal in these forests. Turtles, snakes, crocodiles are also found here.