Landforms on the Earth

We see that surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. Some parts are flat and some are uneven.

This is because of the changes that happen continuously inside and outside the earth.

The changes that happen inside the earth are called internal processes.

And the changes that happen outside the earth, that is, on the earth's surface, are called external processes.

Erosion and deposition are examples of external processes.

Erosion is the process of removal of soil or any particles resulting in the lowering of the Earth's surface.

Deposition is the process of rebuilding the Earth's surface with the soil or any other particles.

Erosion and deposition are carried out by running water, ice and wind.

Based on the internal and external processes, different landforms on the earth are formed.

Major landforms on the earth are mountains, plateaus, and plains.

Let us discuss Mountains

A mountain is any land raised naturally to a height on the surface of the earth.

While some mountains are lower in height, others are higher than the clouds.

Some mountains originate under the sea. For example, Mouna Kea mountain in the Pacific Ocean.

Some part of the Mouna Kea is above the water. Its height is higher than the Mt. Everest when measured from its underwater base.

The mountains that are permanently covered with ice are called glaciers.

Many mountains arranged in a particular line is called a mountain range. These might extend over kilometres.

Some mountain ranges are the Himalayas in Asia, the Alps in Europe and the Andes in South America.

There are three types of mountains: 1. Fold Mountains 2. Block Mountains 3. Volcanic Mountains

Fold Mountains

Fold Mountains look like folded structures as the name suggests.

In the world, some fold mountains are younger than the others.

The Himalayas mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains.

Aravallis in India, the Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia are older fold mountains.

Block Mountains

Block mountains are created when large areas are broken and moved vertically.

The uplifted block is called horst and the lowered block is called graben.

The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of block mountains.

Volcanic Mountains

Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity.

Kilimanjaro in Africa and Fuji in Japan are examples of the Volcanic mountains.

Mountains are useful for humans, plants, and animals.

Mountains are storehouses of water. Many rivers originate from the mountains.

Reservoirs are made on these rivers to store water for the needs of the people.

River water is used for drinking, watering the farming lands, and producing electricity.

Mountains provide a place for many plants and animals to live and this makes it a forest.

Mountain forests give wood, gum, raisins, and others.

Sports are also played in the mountains. Some of them are paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting, and skiing.

Revision

Different landforms on the earth exist due to internal and external processes. Mountain is one of the major landforms.

Mountains that are covered with the ice permanently are called glaciers.

Some mountains exist under the sea. Mouna Kea in the Pacific Ocean is one such mountain.

Many mountains arranged in a particular line is called a mountain range. Himalayas and Alps are such mountain ranges.

There are three types of mountains: 1. Fold Mountains 2. Block Mountains 3. Volcanic Mountains

Fold mountains are the Himalayas, Alps, Aravallis, Appalachians, and Ural mountains.

Another type of mountain is Block mountains. In the Block mountains, uplifted blocks are called horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben.

Block mountains are the Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe.

Some mountains are formed due to volcanic activity. Volcanic mountains are Kilimanjaro in Africa and Fujiyama in Japan.

Mountains are the source of many rivers. Reservoirs are built on these rivers so that water could be used for various purposes.

Mountains provide a place for many plants and animals to live and this makes it a forest.

The End