Neutralization

To Understand What's Neutralization, we should know about Acids and Bases

The class of compounds which release ions in aqueous solutions are called acids

A few examples of acids are as above:

Based on strength acids can be classified as:Strong acidsWeak Acids

Strong acids are acids which undergo complete dissociation in water.

Weak acids are acids which do not undergo complete dissociation in water

Let us now move on to bases

The class of compounds which release ions in aqueous solutions are bases.

Examples of bases are as above:

On the basis of strength, bases are of two typesStrong baseWeak base

Strong bases are those which undergo complete ionization in water.

Weak bases are those which don't undergo complete ionisation in water.

Now that we understood what acids and bases are, let us now attempt to learn neutralization

Let us try to understand neutralization with the help of an activity

Let us take a test tube with 2 ml of HCl and add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator to it.

And add a base to this test tube drop by drop.

The acid in the test tube releases ions. So, when a base is added, the ions react with each other to form water.

As more amount of base is added to the test tube, the number of ions reduce.

Eventually, we will get to a point when all the ions combine with of the base.

When the next drop of base is added the solution turns pink because phenolphthalein turns pink in basic medium

With this concept in mind let us now attempt to define neutralization

It is a reaction between an acid and a base ,which involves the combination of and ions

In this ions from the acid and ions from the base combine to form

The other ions from the acid and the base combine to form a salt

Neutralization is an exothermic reaction i.e a reaction in which heat is liberated

Let us now attempt to study the nature of salts produced in neutralization

The nature of salt produced in a neutralisation reaction depends upon the nature of acid and base used

Salt of a strong acid and a strong base is a neutral salt.

Salt of a strong acid and a weak base is acidic in nature.

Salt of a weak acid and a strong base is basic in nature

Salt of a weak acid and a weak base is a neutral salt

Revision

An acid is a molecule or species which produces ions in aqueous solution

A base is a molecule or a species which produces ions in aqueous solution

The reaction of an acid and a base to form salt and water is known as neutralization

The nature of salt produced in a neutralization reaction depends upon the strength of acid and base used

The End