Piggyback vaccines

Biotechnology is an integration of biology and technology.

It is concerned with the exploitation of biological components.

It is a method that is used to introduce the genetic material of one organism into another organism.

It is also used in the manufacture of antibiotics, insulin, hormones, enzymes, vaccines & drugs using microbes.

It is helpful in developing plants that are pest and frost resistant.

Also, it is used in establishing gene libraries & gene banks of various animals and plants.

The modern biotechnology arose and evolved using two techniques

These are : 1. Genetic engineering 2. Biochemical engineering process.

Genetic engineering provides us scope to change the sequence of a gene and introduce a new gene from one organism to another organism.

Biotechnology is applicable in DNA fingerprinting, forensic sciences, pharmaceuticals etc.

One of the most important applications of biotechnology is piggyback vaccine.

Around 200 years ago Jenner invented a revolutionary method to treat small pox.

He injected the virus of cowpox and the person did not get affected by smallpox.

This step leads to the foundation of the vaccine.

Nowadays, viruses with low or no harmful effects are produced that helps to treat many diseases.

These diseases include hepatitis B, herpes, rabies, Foot and Mouth disease of cattle.

It can also be used to treat Cholera & Malaria.

Cowpox vaccine in present days is used as a vector to carry genes for herpes or hepatitis viral coat into cultured mammalian cells

By using the splicing techniques, we can change genes which code for the protein-polysaccharide coat of hepatitis or herpes simplex viruses.

These genes are put into the genome of vaccinia virus.

These recombinant viruses are then introduced into cultured mammalian cells.

So that we can obtain several copies, and obtain the desired product.

When these recombinant viruses are injected into a mouse or rabbit

Their immune system produces antibodies against the coat of recombinant virus providing immunity against these viruses.

Revision

Biotechnology is used in artificial manipulation and transfer of genetic material from one type of plant to another.

piggyback vaccines are one of the most important example of biotechnology in healthcare.

These vaccines can fight against viral diseases like hepatitis B, herpes, rabies, cholera, malaria etc.

Genes coding for the protein-polysaccharide coat of hepatitis or herpes simplex viruses are spliced into the genome of vaccinia virus.

The immune system of mouse produces antibodies against the coat of the recombinant virus, providing immunity against these viruses.

The End