Population growth in India

Much like climate of a country, the population is also a dynamic phenomenon. It keeps changing!

Numbers and population density change every minute. These changes are bigger than we might realize!

These changes occur due to people being born, people dying, or people moving to other countries.

If we consider a large scale time period, for instance, the last 70 years, India’s population grew nearly 4 times as much as it was back in 1951!

Growth of population simply means the change in the number of persons living in an area over a period of time.

Let’s see the methods of measuring population growth in India.

Methods to measure population growth

The first method is to express the change in numbers, as it is- and it is called absolute change.

This can be measured each year, or each decade. It is done by the Census of India.

It is obtained by simply subtracting the population of the earlier time from the population at the present time.

For instance, if the population of India was 1200 million in the year 2011, and 1210 million in 2012, then the absolute change in population was 10 million.

The second method of measuring population growth is the percentage change.

This actually is a better method than absolute change, since it provides us with a means of comparison.

For example- if we say that the rate of population growth has been 2% over the last year, we mean that…

There has been an increase of 2 persons for every 100 persons living in the country.

India’s population has been growing rapidly, from 361 million in 1951 to 1210 million in 2011.

The growth rate of population has been very less, however, being around 1.25% in 1951, to 1.64 in 2011.

Even though the rate of growth is less, the absolute increase in population has been very large.

This is because even when the annual rate is low, the base population is so large that even the low rate of growth gives us a massive absolute increase!

Look at today- India has around a billion people living in it.

Even if the population increases by just 1% every year, in the next 10 years, roughly 100 million people will be added!

That’s a very large number! In fact, India is projected to become the most populated country in the world by 2045.

India’s large population brings with it a few problems, too.

It brings problems like water scarcity and overuse of resources.

Indian efforts to reduce resource waste and save the environment are wasted because of such a high population.

This is due to a large number of people living in our country.

The growth rate is gradually declining, however, which is a positive sign. Let us see where India’s population ends up in the next few years!


India’s population, as per the 2011 census, is around 1201 million.

Growth of population is mainly affected by births, deaths, and migrations.

Absolute increase is simply the number by which population has increased over time.

Rate of growth is the percentage increase in population, with regards to a previous point in time.

Even though India’s growth rate is low, a large base population means that the increase every year is almost around 10 million people.

Huge population presents problems like wastage of resources and environmental risk.