Processes of population change

Population is a very dynamic factor which keeps on changing.

In any country, population change happens because of births and deaths.

Thousands of babies are born in India every day. Unfortunately, thousands of deaths also occur every day.

Population also changes when when people come to the country or leave the country.

This movement of people is known as migration.

In a nutshell, the three processes of population change in India are births, deaths, and migrations.

Births in India

The number of live births per 1000 persons in 1 year is called the birth rate.

This is an interesting metric that we use to measure the impact of births on population.

Every minute, around 34 babies are born in India. Which means, every day, nearly 48960 babies are born each day in India!

Since a long time, birth rates have always been higher than death rates in India.

This is why it is a significant factor in population change.

Deaths in India

Every minute, around 10 deaths are reported in India.

Measuring the impact of deaths on the population is done by death rate.

The death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 persons in 1 year.

Death rates have been declining in past years, leading to increase in Indian population.

The reason for declining of death rate is better health care facilities and treatment of deadly diseases.

Therefore, birth and death rates are significant factors by which to measure population change.


Many people have to leave the place where they live to get higher studies, better jobs.

People either move one place to another in the same country or go to foreign country.

In both the cases, the population of the country will be affected.

If people move within the same country it is called internal migration.

This will not change the overall population of the country but change the population of a particular region.

In India the internal migration is mainly from rural to urban areas because of better income, education and living standard.

If people go to abroad then it changes the overall population of the country.

This type of movement of people will be called external migration.

There are millions of people who migrate internally and externally, which affects population.

Migration is an important process in population change, since it changes population of urban and rural areas.


Population change processes in India are three types- births, deaths, and migration.

Births are measured by the birth rate, which is the number of live births every year per 1000 persons living.

Deaths are measured by the death rate, which is the number of deaths per 1000 living persons in 1 year.

India’s birth rates have been higher than death rates, therefore, its population has been increasing.

The third process is migration. It can be internal or external.

Internal migration is when people move between states or cities. It changes density and composition of population.

External migration is when people move out of India. It changes the absolute population of India as well as density and other factors.