Seizing Independence: The Sikhs

Sikhism is the world’s fifth most popular religion that believes in one God who guides and protects them.

Sikhism was founded by Baba Guru Nanak in the late 15th century.

In 1699, 10th Sikh guru, Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa organisation.

The establishment of Khalsa organised Sikhs into a political community and build a regional state in Punjab.

Guru Gobind Singh fought several battles against Rajput and Mughal rulers.

These wars were fought before and after the formation of Khalsa in 1699.

After the death of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708, the Khalsa revolted against the Mughal authority.

Banda Bahadur was the leader of Khalsa in their revolt against Mughals.

To declare themselves independent and minted coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.

Khalsa also established its own administration between the Sutlej and the Yamuna.

Later in 1715, Banda Bahadur was caught and hanged in 1716.

Further in the 18th century, several groups of Sikhs like jathas, misls were formed.

Their combined forces were also known as the grand army or dal Khalsa.

At the time of Baisakhi and Diwali, the entire army met at Amritsar to take collective decisions, gurmantras.

They introduced a rakhi system, in which those cultivators were protected who pay a tax of 20 percent of the produce.

Guru Gobind Singh inspired the Khalsa by making them believe that their destiny was to rule.

They were successful in resisting the Mughal governors and Ahmad Shah Abdali who seized Punjab.

In 1765, they again declared their sovereign rule by striking their own coin.

The inscriptions on the coin were the same as the one issued during the time of Banda Bahadur.

Later in the 18th century, the Sikhs expanded their territories from the Indus to the Jamuna under different rulers.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh reunited these rulers and made his capital at Lahore in 1799.

Revision

Sikhism was founded by Baba Guru Nanak in the late 15th century.

Sikhism was organised as political unit in the times of Guru Gobind Singh when he established Khalsa in 1699 AD.

Guru Gobind Singh fought against the Rajput and Mughal rulers both before and after the institution of the Khalsa in 1699.

Guru Gobind Singh died in 1708 and the Khalsa revolted against the Mughal authority under Banda Bahadur’s leadership.

Under Banda Bahadur’s leadership Sikhs declared their independent rule by striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.

Under a number of able leaders, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.

Sikhs combined forces were known as the grand army or dal Khalsa.

Sikh introduced a system called rakhi, in which they protected the cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 percent of the produce.

Later in the 18th century, the Sikhs expanded their territories from the Indus to the Jamuna under different rulers.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh reunited these rulers and made his capital at Lahore in 1799.

The End