Solubility - Solid in Liquid

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes in a solvent.

A property of a solute to dissolve in a given solvent is called solubility.

A solute is a substance which can be either solid or liquid or gas dissolved in a solvent.

A simple example of the solubility of a solid in liquid is the dissolving of sugar cubes in tea.

Let us learn about the solubility of solids in liquids.

Solubility of solid depends on the nature of the solute as well as the solvent.

If a solute is soluble in a given solution, it will be soluble only to a certain extent.

A solution in which no more solute can dissolve in the solvent is said to be a saturated solution.

This solution has maximum amount of solute.

If more solute is added to this solution, it does not dissolve

Let us talk about the effect of temperature on solubility.

If the dissolution process is endothermic then the solubility should increase with an increase in temperature.

Substances which are less soluble can also be dissolved by increasing temperature.

If the dissolution process is exothermic then the solubility should decrease with an increase in temperature.

Let us learn about the effects of pressure.

Solid solubility hardly gets affected by changes in pressure

This is because solids are highly incompressible.

Finally we will move into the mechanism of dissolution.

It is the process where a solute dissolves in a solvent to form a solution.

Its mechanism can be broken down into 3 major steps:

Breaking of solute-solute attractions (endothermic),ex. lattice energy in salts

Breaking of solvent-solvent attractions (endothermic), Ex. the H-Bonds of H2O molecules.

Forming solvent-solute attractions (exothermic), in solvation, which are polar interactions.

Revision

A saturated solution is a chemical solution containing the maximum concentration of a solute dissolved in the solvent

Solubility of solids in liquids in not affected by increase or decrease in pressure.

General increase in temperature, increases the solubility of solids in liquids but it also depends on the heat of the reaction.

Dissolution takes place by breaking of bond among the solutes and solvents and forming between solutes and solvents.

The End