Structure of Water and Ice

Water can exist in three different forms.

That is, they can exist in gaseous, liquid and crystalline forms.

In the gas-phase, water is a bent molecule.

It has a bond angle of and the O-H bond length of 95.7 pm.

It is a polar molecule.

In the liquid form, water molecules are associated with hydrogen bonds.

In crystalline form, water exists as ice.

At the atmospheric pressure, the ice exists in a hexagonal form.

But at very low temperatures, it condenses to the cubic form, that is, it converts from hexagonal form to cubic form.

Now let us look at the structure of ice in detail.

Ice is a highly ordered three-dimensional hydrogen bonded structure.

Spectrochemical results show that each oxygen atom is surrounded tetrahedrally by four other oxygen atoms.

These four oxygen atoms are at a distance of 276 pm from each other.

Because of the presence of hydrogen bonds, ice acquires an open structure with wide holes.

These wide holes can hold different molecules of appropriate sizes interstitially.

Revision

Water exists in three different phases; gaseous, liquid and crystalline forms.

It exists as a bent molecule in the gaseous phase with a bond angle of and a bond length of 95.7 pm.

In the liquid form, the water molecules are associated together as a cluster due to hydrogen bonds.

The crystalline form of it is ice. It exists in hexagonal form at the atmospheric pressure and condenses to cubic form at low temperature.

Ice is a highly ordered three dimensional structure with hydrogen bonded.

Ice has got an open structure with wide holes in it. This can be owed to hydrogen bonding in the structure.

These holes can hold other molecules of certain sizes interstitially.

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