The Crisis of the Empire and the Later Mughals

During 18th century the Mughal empire started declining.

Because Aurangzeb depleted the military and the financial resources of the empire war with Deccan.

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the administration of the empire became weak.

The later Mughal emperors were not capable to control the vast Mughal empire.

The benefit of weak administration was taken by powerful mansabdars.

Nobles appointed as Governors controlled the offices of revenue and military administration.

This gave them political, economic and military powers over the regions of the Mughal empire.

Nobles took control of provinces and the periodic cancellation of revenues stopped.

Peasants and zamindars revolted in many parts of northern and western India.

These rebellions were due to the pressure of increasing taxes.

The powerful chieftains tried to strengthen their own positions.

They were able to seize the economic resources of the region.

The later Mughal emperors were unable to restrict the shifting of powers to the hand of governors.

During this crisis, Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran attacked Delhi and robbed an immense amount of wealth in 1739.

Further, this attack was followed by five attacks by Ahmad Shah Abdali between 1748 and 1761.

The empire was further weakened by competition among different groups of nobles.

The nobles were divided into two groups, the Iranis and Turanis.

Many later Mughal emperors were puppets in the hands of these groups for a long time.

Two Mughal emperors, Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719) and Alamgir II (1754-1759) were murdered by nobles.

Another two emperors, Ahmad Shah (1748-1754) and Shah Alam II (1759-1816) were blinded by their nobles.

Revision

After the death of Aurangzeb, it was difficult for the later Mughal emperors to control the vast Mughal empire.

Peasants and zamindari rebellions in northern and western India created more pressure on the rulers.

In 1739, Nadir Shah attacked Delhi and robbed an immense amount of wealth

Between 1748 and 1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked Delhi five times and plundered huge wealth which weakened the Mughal empire.

The nobles were also divided into two groups, the Iranis and Turanis.

Many later Mughal emperors were puppets in the hands of these groups for a long time.

Two Mughal emperors, Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719) and Alamgir II (1754-1759) were murdered by nobles.

Another two emperors, Ahmad Shah (1748-1754) and Shah Alam II (1759-1816) were blinded by their nobles.

The End