The Old Mughal Province: Awadh

During the declining days of Mughal empire many Mughal officers founded independent states.

One such independent state was Awadh founded by Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa‘adat Khan.

Awadh was a wealthy state with rich alluvial Ganga plain.

It also served as the main trade route between North India and Bengal.

In 1772, Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan was appointed as subedar of Awadh.

Burhan-ul-Mulk also held the combined offices of subadari, diwani, and faujdari of the Awadh state.

That means, he was the one who controlled the political, financial and military affairs of Awadh.

He tried to decrease the Mughal influence in his region by removing the Mughal officers.

He reduced the size of jagirs and appointed his own loyal servants at vacant positions.

The accounts of jagirdars were checked by the officials to avoid any cheating.

And also the revenues of all districts were reassessed by the officials appointed by Nawab’s court.

He seized a number of Rajput zamindaris and the agriculturally fertile lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand.

The right to collect tax was given to the highest bidders.

These bidders were basically jagirdars who paid a fixed sum of money to the state.

During that time, the state was totally depended on local bankers and Mahajans for loans.

On behalf of jagirdars, these local bankers gave a guarantee of the payment of revenue to the state.

In return, the tax collectors were given the freedom to asses and collect taxes.

This way new social groups like moneylenders and bankers started to influence the state revenue system.

Revision

In 1772, Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan was appointed as subedar of Awadh.

Burhan-ul-Mulk also holds the combined offices of subadari, diwani, and faujdari of the Awadh state.

He tried to reduce the influence of the Mughal emperor in Awadh by reducing the number of jagirdars.

The accounts of jagirdars were checked by the officials to avoid any cheating.

The right to collect tax was given to the highest bidders and a fixed sum of money was paid to the state.

The new social groups like moneylenders and bankers started to influence the state revenue system.

The End