The peninsular plateau
Peninsular Plateau is the oldest landmass of India. It was the part of Gondwana land.
Peninsular Plateau is considered as the mineral house of India because of a lot of deposition of economically important minerals.
Characteristics of Peninsular Plateau
The peninsular plateau is formed of old igneous, crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
The plateau extends over states like Maharashtra, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Telangana.
The peninsular plateau has the broad, shallow valleys, and rounded hills.
The two divisions of the plateau are called central highlands and Deccan plateau.
The Narmada river demarcates the divisions of the peninsular plateau.
North of the river lie the central highlands, which gradually merge with the dunes in Rajasthan.
These central highlands are wider in the west but narrow in the east.
They are divided into different ranges. The Vindhyan range in the north, Satpura range in the south, and Aravalli hills in the northwest.
If we travel further east, we see the local extensions of the central highlands.
These are known by the locals as Bagelkhand and Bundelkhand.
Many districts of MP and UP are part of Bundelkhand.
If you feel adventurous, head further east, and you will come across the Chotanagpur plateau!
Chotanagpur plateau is drained by the Damodar river.
The Deccan Plateau
The Deccan plateau covers a large part of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka.
It lies to the south of Narmada, and is a triangular landmass. Its name is derived from the Sanskrit word daksina, meaning south.
In the north, it is bordered by the Satpura range, and the Mahadev, Kaimur, and Maikal hills form the eastern extensions.
As we move towards the northeast, we see the local extensions of the Deccan plateau.
These are locally known as the Meghalaya, North Cachar hills, and the Karbi-Anglong plateau, present in states like Assam and Meghalaya.
In the west, the Deccan plateau is higher, with a gentle eastward slope.
The eastern extensions of the Deccan plateau are so vast that they are separated from the Chotanagpur plateau by just a geographical fault!
The Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia hills are some famous hill ranges in the Deccan plateau.
These hills are mainly part of Assam and Meghalaya.
Let Us Revise
The peninsular plateau is the oldest landmass of India. It is divided into two parts: Deccan plateau and Central Highlands.
North of Narmada river are Central Highlands. They are divided into Bundelkhand, Bhaghelkhand and Chhotanagpur plateau.
Sindh, Betwa, Chambal, Son are the major rivers of this region. They all are seasonal rivers.
South of Narmada river is Deccan plateau. Western and Eastern ghats are the two margins of peninsular plateau.
North-eastern extension of Deccan plateau is North Cachar Hills, and the Karbi-Anglong plateau, present in states like Assam and Meghalaya.