Patterns of problems
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Cell : The Unit Of Life

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept!
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Pattern: Fluid Mosaic Model of Plasma Membrane Description: The fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane was proposed by Singer and Nicolson in 1972. This model describes the structure of the plasma membrane as a mosaic of components, which includes phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydrates, This mosaic pattern of arrangement gives the membrane a fluid character. Each phospholipid molecule has a hydrophilic head pointing outside and a hydrophobic tail forming the inside of the bilayer.
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Pattern: Plastids Description: Plastids are the largest cell organelles in plant cells. These are responsible for photosynthesis and act as storage devices for starch and help in the synthesis of various molecules like fatty acids, etc. These often contain pigments that are used in photosynthesis and different types of pigments that can change the colour of the cell.
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3
Pattern: Nucleus Description: In 1831, Robert Brown discovered the nucleus in the cell. Nucleus is enclosed by a double-membranous nuclear envelope. The space between the two membranes is called the perinuclear space. The nucleus contains chromatin fibres which are made up of DNA molecules and a dense structure called nucleolus. Nucleus is also called the 'brain' or 'managing center of the cell'.
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4
Pattern: Prokaryotic Cells Description: Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms belonging to the domains - Bacteria and Archaea. All prokaryotes have plasma membranes, cytoplasm, ribosomes, a cell wall, DNA, but lack membrane-bound organelles. The prokaryotes have locomotory organelles called flagella.
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5
Pattern: Endomembrane System Description: The Endomembrane system (endo = within) is a group of membranes and organelles in eukaryotic cells that work together to modify, package and transport lipids and proteins. It includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, vacuoles, vesicles and plasma membrane. The endomembrane system doesn't include the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplast.
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6
Pattern: Types of Chromosomes Description: There are four main types of chromosomes: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, and telocentric. Telocentric: Rod-like chromosome with centromere present on the proximal end. No 'p' arm (short arm) present. These are not found in humans. Acrocentric: Rod-like, centromere present just a little away from one end giving rise to one very short arm and an exceptionally long arm. Submetacentric: L-shaped or J-shaped, with centromere near the centre of the chromosome giving rise to two unequal arms. Metacentric: V-shaped chromosomes with centromere in the middle giving rise to two equal arms.
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