Question

Explain biogas plant with a labelled diagram.

Hard

Solution

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  • Biogas or gobar gas is a combustible gas.
  • It is produced through the anaerobic breakdown of waste biomass.
  • The biogas plant consists of the following parts:- 
1) Inlet or charge pit:- for passage of slurry into the digester.
The raw material used is cattle dung, farm refuse, organic waste.
2) Digester:- cylindrical tank which is airtight, above which is present a  floating gas holder of metal with an outlet of gas and pit for removal of sludge.
  • Here the organic wastes get solubilized into simpler substances called monomers (solubilisation).
  • Monomers change to organic acid by fermenting microbes (acidogenesis).
  • Organic acid mostly formed is acetic acid.
  • Methanogens become active and act on components of microbial digestion and form methane gas (methanogenesis).
3) Outlet:- consists of sludge which is used as manure.
  • The methane gas formed in this process is used for cooking and lighting.

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