List the hormones secreted by pancreas.

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The four main hormones produced by the endocrine pancreas and their functions are
  • It is a polypeptide hormone.
  • It is secreted by the pancreas when the glucose level in the blood drops.
  • It increases the blood glucose levels by initiating glycogenolysis (glycogen degradation) and stimulating gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules) in the liver cells.
  • Since it increases the blood glucose levels it is a hyperglycemic (hyper-more, glycemic-sugar levels) hormone
  • It also initiates lipolysis (degradation of lipid) in the adipose tissue.
  • It is also a polypeptide hormone
  • It has antagonistic (opposite) effects of the hormone glucagon.
  • It is released when the glucose level in the blood raises.
  • It lowers blood sugar levels in different ways; increasing the uptake of glucose by all the cells in the body, initiating glycogenesis (glycogen synthesis) in the liver and muscle.
  • It initiates lipogenesis (synthesis of lipids/fat) and storage of fat in adipose tissue and inhibits gluconeogenesis
  • It is a hypoglycemic (hypo=less) hormone as it reduces the sugar levels in the blood 
  • Also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
  • It acts locally on the Islets of Langerhans and inhibit the secretion of both insulin and glucagon
  • It also reduces gastric secretions and inhibits the release of gastrointestinal hormones
Pancreatic Polypeptide
  • It is a polypeptide secreted by the cells of the pancreas.
  • Protein is strong stimulus for its production
  • It affects gastric and biliary secretion and motility of the GI tract

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