Permanent hardness in water is due to the presence of:
all of the above
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Correct option is B)
Permanent hardness in water is due to the presence of the chlorides, nitrates and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. It is not precipitated by boiling. These minerals in water can cause some everyday problems. Hard water may also shorten the life of plumbing and water heaters. The limescale can build up on the inside of the pipe restricting the flow of water or causing a blockage.