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# Precise measurements of physical quantities are a need of science. For example, to as certain the speed of an aircraft, one must have an accurate method to find its positions at closely separated instants of time. This was the actual motivation behind the discovery of radar in World War II. Think of different examples in modern science where precise measurements of length, time, mass etc. are needed. Also, wherever you can, give a quantitative idea of the precision needed.

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#### Precise measurement of physical quantity is truly needed.For example, 1) Ultra-shot laser pulses (time interval 1015 s) are used to measure time intervals in several physical and chemical processes.2) X-ray spectroscopy is used to determine the inter-atomic separation or inter-planer spacing. 3) The development of mass spectrometer helps to measure mass of atom precisely.

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Q1
Precise measurements of physical quantities are a need of science. For example, to as certain the speed of an aircraft, one must have an accurate method to find its positions at closely separated instants of time. This was the actual motivation behind the discovery of radar in World War II. Think of different examples in modern science where precise measurements of length, time, mass etc. are needed. Also, wherever you can, give a quantitative idea of the precision needed.
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Q2
Just as precise measurements are necessary in science, it is equally important to be able to make rough estimates of quantities using rudimentary ideas and common observations. Think of ways by which you can estimate the following (where an estimate is difficult to obtain, try to get an upper bound on the quantity):
(a) The total mass of rain-bearing clouds over India during the Monsoon.
(b) The mass of an elephant
(c) The wind speed during a storm
(e) The number of air molecules in your classroom
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Q3

Is it necessary that a measurement which is accurate must be precise or a measurement which is precise must be accurate?

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Q4
Assertion :In the measurement of physical quantities direct and indirect methods are used. Reason: The accuracy and precision of measuring instruments along with errors in measurements should be taken into account, while expressing the result.
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Q5

Many discoveries in science have been accidental. This is true for plant hormones also. Can you justify this statement by giving an example? Also what term is used for such accidental findings?

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