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What are the basic layers of the wall of alimentary canal?

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The wall of alimentary canal possesses four layers- serosa, muscularis, sub mucosa, and mucosa. Serosa is the outermost layer and is made up of a thin mesothelium and connective tissue. Muscularis is formed by smooth muscles usually arranged into an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer. Sub-mucosa layer is formed of loose connective tissues containing nerves, blood and lymph vessels. Glands are also present in sub-mucosa of duodenum. Mucosa is the innermost layer lining the lumen of the alimentary canal. Mucosa forms irregular folds (rugae) in stomach and villi in small intestine.

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