Which hormonal deficiency is responsible for the following :
(a) Diabetes mellitus
(b) Goitre
(c) Cretinism

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(a) Diabetes mellitus is characterized by abnormally high glucose levels in the blood due to the deficiency of hormone, called insulin. Insulin helps the body use food for energy. When a person has diabetes, the pancreas either cannot produce enough insulin, or the body becomes resistant to insulin or both. Insulin stimulates the cells to uptake glucose. Lack of insulin or the inability of the cells to respond to insulin can lead to problems with the glucose uptake. Since the glucose is not taken up by the cells, the body will not get enough energy and several other problems associated with the increased blood glucose levels are also manifested. 
(b) Goitre is characterized by an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland due to the deficiency of thyroxine hormone in the body. Symptoms of a goiter include enlargement of the throat, ranging from a small lump to a huge mass, swallowing problems and breathing problems.
(c) Cretinism is characterized by stunted growth in the baby due to the deficiency of thyroid hormone in the body. It usually results from a congenital defect (e.g., an absence of the thyroid, the presence of only a rudimentary gland, the inability of the gland to produce thyroxine). However, it can develop later if there is a lack of iodine in the diet, or if the thyroid is diseased or surgically removed.

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