a) On 13th
April 1919, a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh –
some to protest against the British government’s repressive measures, others to
attend the annual Baishakhi Fair. These people were unaware of the imposition
of Martial Law in the city. General Dyer, the Commander, blocked the exit
points from the Bagh and opened fire upon the innocent citizens. Dyer’s
intention was to produce a ‘moral effect’ and terrorize satyagrahis. Hundreds
of innocent people including women and children were killed and wounded due to
this indiscriminate firing by the British soldiers, which ultimately led to
nation-wide outrage. Jallianwala Bagh incident was the most brutal incident in
the History of India.
b) The Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory Government in Britain, under Sir John Simon. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. But nationalists in India opposed the Commission because it had not a single Indian member. Therefore, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”. All parties, including Congress and the Muslim league, participated in the demonstrations.