Vedic Maths, has its name derived from the Vedas, four ancient texts written in ancient Sanskrit scriptures attributed as some of the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. There are four Vedas – Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda which convey orthodox revelations into different aspects of life – rituals, ceremonies, mantras, philosophy, spiritual knowledge and wisdom. These Vedas have some mathematical shortcuts, referred to by theologians as “sutras” have been modified to a level that we can comprehend today. It is what is being studied under the pseudonym of “Vedic Mathematics” now.
The first known work dedicated to Vedic Maths was written by Indian Hindu cleric Bharati Krishna Tirthaji published in 1965. There were 16 “sutras” written in his work, of which many claim to be indirect translation of the phrases from the scriptures to form arithmetic. Here are some tricks from Vedic Maths which might prove useful in the long term:
Multiplying numbers close to a base
Let us take a base of 100. To multiply 96 and 102, we use the method of Vertical and Crosswise method of Vedic Maths.
Both 96 and 102 are close to 100.
96 = 100 – 4 and 102 = 100 + 2.
We write the sum like this:
96 – 4
We perform cross addition/subtraction of either of the diagonal. 96 + 2 = 98 or 102 – 4 = 98, we write that down. Then we multiply the difference from base, here it is -4 x 2 = -8. If the result in this multiplication is negative, take away one from the first result and add the base*one, in this case 100 to the second result, which gives 92. Now write the new result alongside the subtracted result 97, which gives 9792 which is the answer.
In case the multiplied result comes positive, there is no need to borrow the base from the first result.
If we take a number other than a power of 10 as the base, perform the cross addition/subtraction operation and multiply the result with (new base/power of 10).
For eg. If the multiplication is 146 x 149. The base is 150.
Take the 0.5 from 217 and add (base x 0.5) to 04 i.e. it becomes 54.
So the result is 21754.
To add and subtract fractions
Use the “Vertical and crosswise”method from Vedic Maths with a twist. Multiply crosswise and add to get the numerator of the result. Multiply the denominators to get the denominator of the result.
For eg. 2/7 + 1/5
Numerator of answer = Cross multiply and add, (2 x 5) + (7 x 1) = 17
Denominator of answer = Multiply the denominators = 35.
So the result in this case: 17/35.
Pattern multiplication – Opening up the conventional multiplication through Vedic Maths
We again use a Vertical and Crosswise technique.
For eg. Let us multiply 34 and 38.
x 3 8
Multiply vertically on the right: 4 x 8 = 32. Keep 2 carry 3.
Multiply crosswise and add: (3 x 8) + (3 x 4) = 24+12 = 36. Add the carry from before i.e. 36 + 3 = 39. Keep 9 carry 3.
Multiply vertically on the left: 3 x 3 = 9. Add the carry over 9+3 = 12. Write down all the numbers together. The result is 1292.
In case of n-digit numbers. Start from the right, crosswise the last 2, crosswise the last 3,….., crosswise all the numbers,…., crosswise the first 3, crosswise the first 2 and finally finish with multiplying the first two numbers with adding the result.
A way to check additions done
Addition of the Digit Sum of the numbers to be multiplied should be equal to the digit sum of the answer.
For eg. 23 + 64 = 87.
Digit sum of 23 = 2+3 = 5; 64 = 6+4 = 10 = 1+0 = 1;
Digit sum of 87 = 8+7 = 15 = 1+5 = 6.
Addition of digit sum of the numbers = 5+1 = 6.
Vedic Maths can be a mighty weapon when the question of speed arises while doing a problem. But one must be well versed and practised in its tricks in order to apply them without any doubt. There is no use in doing a problem through Vedic Maths and then doing the normal method to verify it. That wouldn’t save any time. Hence, as they say, practice makes you perfect!
Also Check out some other tricks in Vedic Maths here!