Acid Definition in Chemistry
An acid is a chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or accepts electrons. Most acids contain a hydrogen atom bonded that can release (dissociate) to yield a cation and anion in water. The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions produced by an acid, the higher its acidity and the lower the pH of the solution.
The word acid from the Latin words acidus or acere, which mean “sour”, since one of the characteristics of acids in water is a sour taste (e.g., vinegar or lemon juice).
Summary of Acids and Base Properties
This table offers an overview of key properties of acids compared with bases:
|pH||less than 7||greater than 7|
|litmus paper||blue to red||don’t change litmus, but can return acid (red) paper back to blue|
|taste||sour (e.g. vinegar)||bitter or soapy (e.g., baking soda)|
|odor||burning sensation||often no odor (exception is ammonia)|
|reactivity||reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas||reacts with several fats and oils|
Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Acids
There are different ways of defining acids. When a person refers to “an acid”, this usually refers to an Arrhenius or Brønsted-Lowry acid. Lewis acids are typically called “Lewis acids”. The reason is because these definitions don’t include the same set of molecules.
Arrhenius Acids – By this definition, acids are substances which increases the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) when added to water.
You may also consider increasing the concentration of hydrogen ion (H+), as an alternative.
Brønsted-Lowry Acids – By this definition, acids are materials capable of acting as a proton donor. This is a less restrictive definition because solvents besides water are not excluded. Essentially, compounds that can be deprotonated are Brønsted-Lowry acids, including typical acids, plus amines and alcohol.
This is the most widely used definition of an acid.
Lewis Acids – Lewis Acids are compounds which can accept an electron pair to form a covalent bond. By this definition, some compounds which don’t contain hydrogen qualify as acids, including aluminum trichloride and boron trifluoride.
These are examples of types of acids and specific acids:
stomach acids (which contains hydrochloric acid)
vinegar (which contains acetic acid)
citric acid (found in citrus fruits)
Strong and Weak Acids
Acids may be identified as either strong or weak acids based on how completely they dissociate into their ions in water. A strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid, completely dissociates into its ions in water. Weak acids only partly dissociates into its ions, so the solution contains water, ions, and the acid (e.g., acetic acid).