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Science in its totality is the study of the objects, surroundings and various natural events and their effects based on experiments and observations. It encompasses a systematic and logical approach towards the behavior of changes around us and the events concerned with them. The curiosity of human brain for understanding the world and things that are beyond this world has led to the development of various laws and principles. Science has helped the human brain to understand its surrounding very precisely which in turn has resulted in numerous discoveries and inventions. These discoveries and inventions have improved the standard of living on this planet and have paved the way for further studies. Science has been divided into different sub-groups based on their concerned area of study. Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with matter, particularly the study of atoms and molecules and the parameters that govern their inter-convertibility. Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. This article is on Basic Chemistry.

Chemistry from the viewpoint of exams is a very important subject. Along with physics and mathematics, it is one of the three pillars on which any science related stream stands. All the competitive exams have a separate section for chemistry to which a significant portion of marks is dedicated to.

What is Chemistry?

‘Chemistry’ is one of the basic branches of science that deals with the properties, structure, and constituents of matter or substances and its interactions with other forms of matter. There is a lot of difference that can be seen when you compare Basic Chemistry and Modern chemistry. Basic Chemistry originated in ancient times at the hands of famous scientists called Alchemists. It explained all the basics of the subject which were concluded after a series of experiments which shed light on how they really worked. Whereas Modern Chemistry prevailed in the 17th century which laid systematic steps in gaining knowledge about the matter. Modern chemistry brought about various theories which finally became justified with the experiments they conducted to prove how matter interacts.

The domain of chemistry comprises of the study of the composition of matter, its structure, and properties. The fundamental constituents of matter, atoms & molecules, form the basis of chemistry. Chemistry has provided answers to various questions. The quantitative measurement of the number of basic constituents of matter i.e. atoms and molecules and their dependence on the mass of the given matter is well explained by chemistry. Advances in chemistry have helped scientists and engineers to harness the energy associated with these atoms & molecules.

Today we can preserve food items for long duration’s of time; we have millions of chemicals that are being used in different industries for manufacturing a variety of products. Cell phone covers, plastic bags, the steel used in construction, the pasteurized milk, photosynthesis, the crackers we burn, etc. are only a few examples of products of chemistry. These products are such deeply rooted in our lives that we fail to visualize their importance and the role of the science behind them.

In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. Examples include plant chemistry (botany), the formation of igneous rocks (geology), how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon (astrophysics), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics).

Branches of Chemistry

Due to the vast variety of interactions possible between matter in general, there are said to be five branches of Chemistry namely organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry and physical chemistry. The details about them are explained below-

  1. Organic Chemistry

It is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of carbon-based compounds. It mainly applies to the study of the behavior, characteristics, compositions and the properties of the organic compounds. It is also known as The Chemistry of Life.

  1. Inorganic Chemistry

A branch of chemistry that deals with the study of metals and gaseous matter or materials which do not contain carbon as an element in it are called as Inorganic chemistry. It is opposite side of Organic Chemistry.

  1. Physical Chemistry

The combined study of using physics and chemistry to explain chemical systems is called as Physical chemistry. This branch relates to the physical properties along with the structure of matter and energy. The sub-branches coming under this field are quantum physics and thermodynamics.

  1. Biochemistry

Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of the chemical processes that takes place in living organisms. Hence the name Biochemistry.

  1. Analytical Basic Chemistry

It is an interesting field of chemistry that studies about the properties of matter, along with the composition of different substances and materials. This branch of chemistry uses quantitative methods for the identification of chemical and physical properties of matter.


Chemical Reactions

As you might be aware of common salt which we use in our foods, Have you ever observed what happens when the elements of these substances are involved in reactions?

Consider the sodium metal element when it reacts with water it produces a kind of hissing sound by giving out hydrogen as a gas. This is due to the chemical reaction which makes it happen. The equation for this chemical reaction can be represented as given below :

Na + H2O → NaOH + H2

On more reaction would be the chemical reaction between sodium and chlorine. There is a formation of Sodium chloride or commonly known as common salt. Likewise, there are many chemical reactions taking place within and around us all which are all by the phenomenon of chemistry.

Applications of Chemistry

Chemistry has a wide number of applications coming in various fields, some of which are given below-

  • Food Chemistry

  • Environmental chemistry

  • Geochemistry

  • Chemical engineering

  • Agricultural chemistry

Hope you liked our article on Basic Chemistry.

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