Biology Projects for Class 12
The study of biology projects is very much important in order to understand various kinds of biological processes that occur within the animals and even the humans. Scientists make a clean study of nature and its contents( living or Nonliving) in order to learn the ways of improving animal health for the purpose of farm production, human companionship and also the wildlife preservation. They even study animal life in order to discover a various number of new methods to improve the human health.
The animal studies provide a better understanding of the disease developments and also its prevention along with the standards for knowing the normal and the abnormal behavior. These project ideas introduce us to the areas of animal studies which is explored through the process of experimentation. The scientific experiments consist of a number of steps that are followed by scientific investigators in order to answer questions about the natural world. It also involves making an observation, formulating a hypothesis, conducting scientific experiment too. The scientific inquiry begins with an observation that is followed by formulating a question as to what is been observed.
The concentration of Salt in Plant Cell: Experiment
The main purpose of conducting this experiment of a plant cell is to regulate how the different concentrations of salts affect the cytoplasm of plant cell when exposed to them.
- Graduated Cylinders
- Red onion
- safety goggles
- table salt
- small knife
- paper towels
- distilled water
- Collect all the materials that are needed for a plant cell science experiment. Wear the safety goggles.
- Make Use of knife to cut onions into two pieces of wedge-shaped
- Use eyedropper for placing a drop of the distilled water at the center of the slide of the microscope.
- Make use of tweezers in order to peel the thin layer of the skin tissue in part of onion wedge. Place it at the center of the slide of the microscope
- Add one drop of the distilled water & also one drop of the stain may be iodine or even eosin over onion tissue on the slide.
- Lower the glass slipcover carefully at an angle above the tissue which is stained, thus allowing the air bubbles in order to escape.
- Examine this slide under the compound microscope at a magnification of 100X
- Later draw and also identify the observed structures.
- Prepare about 5 percent solution of salt by adding about 5 gms of salt per 100 ml of the distilled water in a graduated cylinder. Then gently shake it until it gets dissolved. Prepare 10 percent of the solution by adding about 10 gms of the salt per 100 ml of the distilled water in one more graduated cylinder.
- Add 5 percent of the solution by use of dropper to one part of the prepared slide. The 5% solution should get mixed with the liquid which is already on the slide of onion tissue.
- Then glide the triangle-shaped end of the paper towel under opposite end of the coverslip. This will make the liquid to get mixed more with the liquid on the slide. Use some more additional drops of the 5% solution when needed in order to complete the introduction of the new solution.
- Repeat the process in steps 7 and also 8.
- Make use of dropper again to add few drops of 10% solution to the one part of the coverslip of the slide with 5% solution. The 10 percent solution should get mixed with the liquid which is already on the slide of onion tissue.
- Glide the triangle-shaped part of the paper towel on the opposite end of the coverslip. Use some additional drops of about 10% solution when needed for completion of the new solution.
- Repeat steps 7 and 8 for your plant cell science project.
After the recording of the data, you will get to know as to how the different salt concentrations affect the cytoplasm as well as the growth of the plant.
Algae Biofuel Process
Algaes are the organisms which are commonly found in most of the aquatic environments. The large type of multicellular algae reside in ponds and also in the oceans. Microalgae are the tiniest unicellular organisms which develop as suspensions in the water and they can be measured in micrometers. The aim of this experiment is to measure the number of Calories present in an algae samples which are obtained from various environments and also to compare the quantity of oil that is present in each of the sample.
- Food calorimeter
- Collection Jars
- Microwave oven
- Filter papers
- Build food calorimeter or even you can purchase it.
- Collect different samples of algae from different sources like pond, ocean, marshes, or even swamps. Then, store these algae specimens in the jar which is filled with some water.
- Note conditions in the notebook as to from where you have got the samples
- Also, record as to these conditions that had placed a growth stress on these algae.
- Make a hypothesis predicting as to which sample of algae contains more oil
- Take off the water from the specimen containing the algae by heating in the microwave oven. Make sure you do not burn any of the algae
- Measure about equal quantities of each kind of dried algae
- Later fill up the water chamber of the calorimeter up to calibration point. Then measure water temperature
- Burn algae sample(anyone) in the calorimeter chamber, thus allowing the heat which is produced by combustion in order to heat up the water.
- Continue the process of burning till the samples get reduced to carbon.
- Then, measure the temperature of the water after the completion of burning up of algae
- Compute the number of calories that is produced by the burning of algae.
- Repeat this process for each of the samples of algae
- Now, differentiate between the number of calories that is produced by burning up of each of samples of algae
- Assess this hypothesis in the light of your experiment.
Algae require water, sunlight, nutrients along with carbon dioxide in order to grow. By photosynthesis process, algae convert carbon dioxide into glucose. This glucose is broken down into some fatty acids which under the normal conditions are used for the production of membranes for the new algal cells. When these algae are starved out of nutrients, then the fatty acids in them produce the fat molecules which are nothing but the oil or the fuel. Most of the algae does not produce much of oil unless & un-till they get physiologically stressed or say when they do not get their basic requirements which are necessary for the growth.
The aim of this experiment is to determine the process of denaturation of proteins, at what temperature proteins lose their structure? and as to why these proteins denature?
- Small saucepan
- 6 Eggs
- Candy thermometer
- 2 Mixing bowls
- Milk powder
- Aluminum foil
- Cookie Sheet
- Conventional or Toaster oven
- Break an egg in the first bowl and then separate the yolk from the egg white. Transfer the complete egg white into the other bowl.Ensure that the yolks should not contain whites.
- Move all the egg whites into a small saucepan. Then, place a candy thermometer into the saucepan.
- Later, heat all the egg whites gently. Make a note of the temperature, when there is a change in the texture.
- Then clean up the thermometer, saucepan, and bowls.
- Prepare 2 cups of milk by using milk powder. Follow the instruction given in the packet. Add it to the saucepan. Then, Place the candy thermometer into the saucepan.
- Gently heat up the milk. Record the temperature when milk skims are formed over the top or when the texture of milk changes.
- Cover the cookie sheet with an aluminum foil.
- Preheat the oven.
- By the use of the comb, pull the hair out of the hairbrush and then cover the cookie sheet.
- Keep the cookie sheet and also the hair into an oven. Heat it up for about 15 minutes. Check the hair for any changes.
- Again increase the temperature to about 25 degrees. Later, after 15 minutes, again inspect the hair.
- Repeat the same procedure of increasing the temperature for about 25-degrees and then note the changes in the hair texture.
Denaturation is one of the processes, where the proteins lose their structure when they get attacked by some of the forces like strong acids, temperature or heat, or might be a solvent like the alcohol. If the protein is said to be denatured, then it can also die. This experiment determines at what temperature, proteins like casein, albumin, keratin, milk get denatured. Eggs do not but the albumen and milk consist of casein and the hair is made up of keratin.