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General Guidelines For Making Business Project Class 12 

Following are the essential guidelines for preparation and submission of Business studies Project for Class 12.

  1. Content of the Project should be handwritten
    The project should be handwritten and not typed and printed.
  2. Neat and legible Handwriting
    Handwriting should be legible and no scribbling or cutting should be there. Make a very neat presentation of your project.
  3. Project To Be Presented In Folder
    The project should be presented in a neat folder or Spiral Bound.
  4. File Format
    Complete project should be in a file format.
  5. Paper
    The entire report must be submitted on A4 size paper. Use interleaf coloured sheet (ruled on one side and blank on other side)
  6. Write On One Side Of The Page
    The project should be written on one side of each page only.
  7.  Margins
    You should leave some margin on the Top, bottom, Left and right of the page.
  8. Page Numbers
    Every page must be numbered.
  9. Tables And Figures
    Tables and Figures should be centred and labelled with identification number and title.Table and figure should clearly show what is intended of them.In case of graphical representation, axis must be clearly labeled.
  10. Sequence Of Project Report
  • Cover page should contain the Project title, student information, school and year
  • Acknowledgement
  • Certificate
  • List of contents
  • Introduction, Topic with suitable heading
  • Planning and activities done during the project, if any
  • Observations and findings while conducting the project
  • Newspaper clippings (If Any)
  • Conclusions (summarised suggestions or findings, future scope of study)
  • Bibliography
  • Teachers Observation and Remarks.


Project One: Elements of Business Environment

The students should select one of the following element with teacher’s help.

  1. Changes witnessed over the last few years on mode of packaging and its economic impact. The teacher may guide the students to identify the following changes:
    • The changes in transportation of fruits and vegetables such as cardboard crates being used in place of wooden crates, etc. Reasons for above changes.
    • Milk being supplied in glass bottles, later in plastic bags and now in tetra-pack and through vending machines.
    • Plastic furniture [doors and stools] gaining preference over wooden furniture.
    • The origin of cardboard and the various stages of changes and growth.
    • Brown paper bags packing to recycled paper bags to plastic bags and cloth bags.
    • Re use of packaging [bottles, jars and tins] to attract customers for their products.
    • The concept of pyramid packaging for milk.
    • Cost being borne by the consumer/manufacturer.
    • Packaging used as means of advertisements.
  2. The reasons behind changes in the following:
    Coca – Cola and Fanta in the seventies to Thums up and Campa Cola in the eighties to Pepsi and Coke in nineties.
    The teacher may guide the students to the times when India sold Coca Cola and Fanta which were being manufactured in India by the foreign companies.
    The students may be asked to enquire about

    • Reasons of stopping the manufacturing of the above mentioned drinks in India THEN.
    • The introduction of Thums up and Campa cola range.
    • Re entry of Coke and introduction of Pepsi in the Indian market.
    • Factors responsible for the change.
    • Other linkages with the above.
    • Leading brands and the company having the highest market share.
    • Different local brands venturing in the Indian market.
    • The rating of the above brands in the market.
    • The survival and reasons of failure in competition with the international brands.
    • Other observations made by the students
      The teacher may develop the following on the above lines
  3. Changing role of the women in the past 25 years relating to joint families, nuclear families, women as a bread earner of the family, changes in the requirement trend of mixers, washing machines, micro wave and standard of living.
  4. The changes in the pattern of import and export of different Products.
  5. The trend in the changing interest rates and their effect on savings.
  6. A study on child labour laws, its implementation and consequences.
  7. The state of ‘anti plastic campaign,’ the law, its effects and implementation.
  8. The laws of mining /setting up of industries, rules and regulations, licences required for running that business.
  9. Social factors affecting acceptance and rejection of an identified product. (Dish washer, Atta maker, etc)
  10. What has the effect of change in environment on the types of goods and services?
    The students can take examples like:

    • Washing machines, micro waves, mixers and grinder.
    • Need for creche, day care centre for young and old.
    • Ready to eat food, eating food outside, and tiffin centres.
  11. Change in the man-machine ratio with technological advances resulting in change of cost structure.
  12. Effect of changes in technological environment on the behaviour of employee

Project Two: Principles of Management

The students are required to visit any one of the following:

  • A departmental store.
  • An Industrial unit.
  • A fast food outlet.
  • Any other organisation approved by the teacher.
    They are required to observe the application of the general Principles of management advocated by Fayol.
    Fayol’s principles

    1. Division of work.
    2. Unity of command.
    3. Unity of direction.
    4. Scalar chain
    5. Espirit de corps
    6. Fair remuneration to all.
    7. Order.
    8. Equity.
    9. Discipline
    10. Subordination of individual interest to general interest.
    11. Initiative.
    12. Centralisation and decentralisation.
    13. Stability of tenure.


They may enquire into the application of scientific management techniques by F.W.
Taylor in the unit visited.
Scientific techniques of management.

  1. Functional foremanship.
  2. Standardisation and simplification of work.
  3. Method study.
  4. Motion Study.
  5. Time Study.
  6. Fatigue Study
  7. Differential piece rate plan.

Project Three: Stock Exchange

The purpose of this project is to teach school students the values of investing and utilising the stock market. This project also teaches important lessons about the economy, mathematics and financial responsibility.
The basis of this project is to learn about the stock market while investing a specified amount of fake money in certain stocks. Students then study the results and buy and sell as they see fit.
This project will also guide the students and provide them with the supplies necessary to successfully monitor stock market trends and will teach students how to calculate profit and loss on stock.

The project work will enable the students to:

  • understand the topics like sources of business finance and capital market
  • understand the concepts used in stock exchange
  • inculcate the habit of watching business channels, reading business journals/newspapers and seeking information from their elders.

The students are expected to:

  1. Develop a brief report on History of Stock Exchanges in India. (your country)
  2. Prepare a list of at least 25 companies listed on a Stock Exchange.
  3. To make an imaginary portfolio totalling a sum of Rs. 50,000 equally in any of the 5 companies of their choice listed above over a period of twenty working days.

The students may be required to report the prices of the stocks on daily basis and
present it diagrammatically on the graph paper.

  • They will understand the weekly holidays and the holidays under the Negotiable Instruments Act.
    They will also come across with terms like closing prices, opening prices, etc.
  • During this period of recording students are supposed to distinctively record the daily and starting and closing prices of the week other days under the negotiable instrument act so that they acquire knowledge about closing and opening prices.
  • The students may conclude by identifying the causes in the fluctuations of prices. Normally it would be related to the front page news of the a business journal, for example,
  • Change of seasons.
  • Festivals.
  • Spread of epidemic.
  • Strikes and accidents
  • Natural and human disasters.
  • Political environment.
  • Lack of faith in the government policies.
  • Impact of changes in government policies for specific industry.
  • International events.
  • Contract and treaties at the international scene.
  • Relations with the neighbouring countries.
  • Crisis in developed countries, etc.

The students are expected to find the value of their investments and accordingly rearrange their portfolio. The project work should cover the following aspects;

  1. Graphical presentation of the share prices of different companies on different dates.
  2. Change in market value of shares due to change of seasons, festivals, natural and human disasters.
  3. Change in market value of shares due to change in political environment/ policies of various countries/crisis in developed countries or any other reasons
  4. Identify the top ten companies out of the 25 selected on the basis of their market value of shares.
    It does not matter if they have made profits or losses.

Project Four: Marketing

  1. Adhesives
  2. Air conditioners
  3. Baby diapers
  4. Bathing Soap
  5. Bathroom cleaner
  6. Bike
  7. Blanket
  8. Body Spray
  9. Bread
  10. Breakfast cereal
  11. Butter
  12. Camera
  13. Car
  14. Cheese spreads
  15. Chocolate
  16. Coffee
  17. Cosmetology product
  18. Crayons
  19. Crockery
  20. Cutlery
  21. Cycle
  22. DTH
  23. Eraser
  24. e-wash
  25. Fairness cream
  26. Fans
  27. Fruit candy
  28. Furniture
  29. Hair Dye
  30. Hair Oil
  31. Infant dress
  32. Inverter
  33. Jams
  34. Jeans
  35. Jewellery
  36. Kurti
  37. Ladies bag
  38. Ladies footwear
  39. Learning Toys
  40. Lipstick
  41. Microwave oven
  42. Mixers
  43. Mobile
  44. Moisturizer
  45. Music player
  46. Nail polish
  47. Newspaper
  48. Noodles
  49. Pen
  50. Pen drive
  51. Pencil
  52. Pickles
  53. Razor
  54. Ready Soups
  55. Refrigerator
  56. RO system
  57. Roasted snacks
  58. Salt
  59. Sarees
  60. Sauces/ Ketchup
  61. Shampoo
  62. Shaving cream
  63. Shoe polish
  64. Shoes
  65. Squashes
  66. Suitcase/ airbag
  67. Sunglasses
  68. Tea
  69. Tiffin Wallah
  70. Toothpaste
  71. Wallet
  72. Washing detergent
  73. Washing machine
  74. Washing powder
  75. Water bottle
  76. Water storage tank
  77. Wipes

Any more as suggested by the teacher.
Now the students are required to make a project on the identified product/service keeping in mind the following:

  1. Why have they selected this product/service?
  2. Find out ‘5’ competitive brands that exist in the market.
  3. What permission and licences would be required to make the product?
  4. What are your competitors Unique Selling Proposition.[U.S.P.]?
  5. Does your product have any range give details?
  6. What is the name of your product?
  7. Enlist its features.
  8. Draw the ‘Label’ of your product.
  9. Draw a logo for your product.
  10. Draft a tag line.
  11. What is the selling price of your competitor’s product?
    • Selling price to consumer
    • Selling price to retailer
    • Selling price to wholesaler

What is the profit margin in percentage to the

  • Manufacturer.
  • Wholesaler.
  • Retailer.
  1. How will your product be packaged?
  2. Which channel of distribution are you going to use? Give reasons for selection?
  3. Decisions related to warehousing, state reasons.
  4. What is going to be your selling price?
    • To consumer
    • To retailer
    • To wholesaler
  5. List 5 ways of promoting your product.
  6. Any schemes for
    • The wholesaler
    • The retailer
    • The consumer
  7. What is going to be your ‘U.S.P?
  8. What means of transport you will use and why?
  9. Draft a social message for your label.
  10. What cost effective techniques will you follow for your product.
  11. What cost effective techniques will you follow for your promotion plan.

At this stage the students will realise the importance of the concept of marketing mix and
the necessary decision regarding the four P’s of marketing.

  • Product
  • Place
  • Price
  • Promotion

On the basis of the work done by the students the project report should include the

  1. Type of product /service identified and the (consumer/industries) process involve there in.
  2. Brand name and the product.
  3. Range of the product.
  4. Identification mark or logo.
  5. Tagline.
  6. Labeling and packaging.
  7. Price of the product and basis of price fixation.
  8. Selected channels of distribution and reasons thereof.
  9. Decisions related to transportation and warehousing. State reasons.
  10. Promotional techniques used and starting reasons for deciding the particular technique.
  11. Grading and standardization.

Presentation and Submission of Project Report

At the end of the stipulated term, each student will prepare and submit his/her project report.
Following essentials are required to be fulfilled for its preparation and submission.

  1. The total length of the project will be of 25 to 30 pages.
  2. The project should be handwritten.
  3. The project should be presented in a neat folder.
  4. The project report should be developed in the following sequence
    • Cover page should include the title of the Project, student information, school and year.
    • List of contents.
    • Acknowledgements and preface (acknowledging the institution, the places visited and the persons who have helped).
    • Introduction.
    • Topic with suitable heading.
    • Planning and activities done during the project, if any.
    • Observations and findings of the visit.
    • Conclusions (summarized suggestions or findings, future scope of study).
    • Photographs (if any).
    • Appendix
    • Teacher’s observation.
    • Signatures of the teachers.
    • At the completion of the evaluation of the project, it should be punched in the centre so that the report may not be reused but is available for reference only.
    • The project will be returned after evaluation. The school may keep the best projects.


Allocation of Marks = 20 Marks
The marks will be allocated under the following heads:

1 Initiative, cooperativeness and participation 2 Mark
2 Creativity in presentation 2 Mark
3 Content, observation and research work 4 Marks
4 Analysis of situations 4 Marks
5 Viva 8 Marks
Total 20 Marks

For more information on Class 12 Business Studies follow us here.

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