Chemistry Class 11: Syllabus and Important Notes
The chemistry class 11 syllabus aims to give the students an overall picture of what fundamentals of higher chemistry look like. The chapters that are included in the answer booklet are:
- Some basic concepts of chemistry
- Structure of atom
- Classification of elements and periodicity
- Chemical bonding and molecular structure
- States of matter: liquids and gases
- Chemical thermodynamics
- Redox reaction
- S-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals)
- Some p- block elements
- Organic chemistry – some basic principles and techniques
- Environmental chemistry
The study material aims to clear all doubts pertaining to the chapters mentioned above. It contains an elaborate explanation to the most commonly asked questions. Now let us look at some important notes of chemistry class 11.
Chemistry Class 11: Important Notes
Some basic concepts of chemistry
Method to find out the weight of compounds, mass percentage of elements, empirical formula, Carbon dioxide produced by different processes, molar mass, concentration of various elements in solutions, calculation of molecular formula, atomic mass, density and concentration of elements, pressure, volume and mass, significant figure, law of chemical combination, distance calculation, limiting reagent.
Structure of an atom
Electron, proton and neutron, calculation of atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model, Rutherford’s model, Bohr’s model, shells and subshells, nature of light and matter, Heisenberg’s principle, orbitals, quantum number, shape of s, p and d, rules to fill electrons, Pauli’s principle, Hund’s rule, electronic configuration, stability of orbits.
Classification of elements and periodicity
Organization of the periodic table, Mendeleev and his approach, quantum numbers, modern approach for the periodic law, valence electrons, ionic radius and atomic radius, isoelectronic species, cation and anion, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, electron affinity, valency, nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Chemical bonding and molecular structure
Bond formation process, Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, octet rule, bond strength and length, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, dipole moment, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, Van der Waals force, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond, pi and sigma bond.
States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Gas: Role of gas laws in explaining the concept of molecule, Boyle’s law and application, Charles’ law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behavior, , Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation and molecular mass, deviation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, critical and standard temperature pressure.
Liquid: vapour pressure
Concepts of System and types, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics (internal energy, enthalpy, capacity of heat, specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH as well, enthalpy of bond dissociation, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, entropy as a state function, criteria and properties for equilibrium).
Equilibrium in processes, the dynamism of equilibrium, law of mass action, the equilibrium constants, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle, acid-base pair, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, Lewis acids, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, pH and its calculation, buffer solution, solubility product, precipitation.
Oxidation, reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, oxidizing agents, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, process of electrolysis, galvanic cell,
Position of hydrogen in the periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide, usage of water in different scenarios.
S – Block Elements
Chemical and physical features of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, solvay process, conversion of these elements, reaction of some processes, uses and occurrences of some elements, melting points, stability, trends in reactivity with oxygen, water, halogens and hydrogen, properties and preparation of some compounds. (group 1 and 2 elements)
Some p -Block Elements
Electronic configuration and occurrence, oxidation, stability, chemical reactivity, properties of boron, resonance structure, state of hybridization, some compounds like borax, boric acid, boron hydrides and aluminum, reaction with acids, some uses, carbon catenation, allotropic form, compounds like silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates along with their uses, properties of diamond, graphite, etc, inert pair effect (group 13 and 14 elements)
Organic Chemistry and some basic principles
Hybridization process of carbon compounds, bond line formulae, methods of purification, IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds, electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Their classification, aliphatic (isomerism, properties, halogenation, combustion, pyrolysis), alkenes (double bond, isomerism, preparation, reactions to hydrogen, water, halogen and hydrogen halides, ozonolysis, electrophilic addition), alkynes (triple bond, preparation, acidic character, addition reaction hydrogen,, halogen, water and hydrogen halides), aromatic hydrocarbons (IUPAC, benzene, resonance, aromaticitym electrophilic substitution, nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, carcinogenicity, toxity, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation).
Environmental pollution (air, water and soil pollution), reasons and ways to prevent pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, BOD, greenhouse effect and global warming, green chemistry as an alternative for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.
These were our notes about chemistry class 11.
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