## Commerce Class 11 Syllabus:

Commerce is an important academic stream that imparts a detailed knowledge related to economy, finance, accounting and others. Specifically , the subjects included in this stream are Economics ,  Business Studies , Accountancy and English along with a choice of Maths or Informatics Practices. A perfectly devised syllabus plays a vital role in imparting required knowledge to students so that they can go for further studies and ensure a bright future. CBSE commerce class 11 syllabus is a competent resource for students as it is structured with all relevant topics, which provide essential knowledge to students. Even though various institutions follow there own structure of studies and exams , but they are more or less similar to that given by CBSE. So , to guide students on illuminated paths here is the Commerce Class 11 Syllabus for all the subjects.

Commerce Class 11 Syllabus for Economics: The Following is the exam structure or blueprint given by the CBSE for the commerce Class 11 syllabus of economics.

 Units Title Marks Part A Statistics for Economics 1. Introduction 13 2. Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data 3. Statistical Tools and Interpretation 27 Part B Part B: Indian Economic Development 4. Development Experience (1947-90) and 13 Economic Reforms since 1991 12 5. Current Challenges facing Indian Economy 15 6. Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours (OTBA) 10 Part C Project Work 10 Total 100

Accordingly all the parts have been discussed below :

### Part A: Statistics for Economics

In this course, you are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyse, and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. Here are the broad topics included in this heading in commerce class 11 syllabus.

### Unit 1: Introduction

What is Economics?

Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics

### Unit 2: Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data

Collection of data – sources of data – primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.

Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.

Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

### Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation

Measures of Central Tendency – mean (simple and weighted), median and mode

Measures of Dispersion – absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and its application.

Correlation – meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation – Karl Pearson’s method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman’s rank correlation.

Introduction to Index Numbers – meaning, types – wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

### Part B: Indian Economic Development

In this course , a student is introduced to the Indian Economy. The section focusses on the problems that Indian Economy faced and discusses measures taken to curb them. It also puts emphasis on the current challenges which our economy faces and at the end provides a comprehensive comparison of our economy with our neighbours. Here are the broad headings in commerce class 11 syllabus under which topics can be classified.

### Unit 4: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc.) and foreign trade.

Economic Reforms since 1991:

Need and main features – liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation; An appraisal of LPG policies

### Unit 5: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

Poverty – absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming

Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India

Employment: Formal and informal, growth and other issues: Problems and policies.

Inflation: Problems and Policies

Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming.

### Unit 6: Development Experience of India

A comparison with neighbours

India and Pakistan

India and China

Issues: growth, population, sectoral development and other developmental indicators

BUSINESS STUDIES : Provided below is the commerce class 11 syllabus for CBSE.

Here is an insight into the commerce class 11 syllabus for business studies.

### Unit 1: Nature and Purpose of Business

• Concept and characteristics of business.
• Business, profession and employment – Meaning and their distinctive features.
• Objectives of business – Economic and social, role of profit in business.
• Classification of business activities: Industry and Commerce.
• Industry – types: primary, secondary, tertiary – Meaning and sub types.
• Commerce – trade: types (internal, external, wholesale and retail; and auxiliaries to trade: banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, and advertising.
• Business risks – Meaning, nature and causes.

### Unit 2: Forms of Business organizations

• Sole Proprietorship – meaning, features, merits and limitations.
• Partnership – Features, types, merits and limitations of partnership and partners, registration of a partnership firm, partnership deed. Type of partners.
• Hindu Undivided Family Business: features.
• Cooperative Societies- features, types, merits and limitations.
• Company: private and public company -features, merits and limitations.
• Formation of a company- four stages, important document (MOA, AOA, relevances of certificate of incorporation and certificate of commencement.
• Starting a business – Basic factors.

### Unit 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises

• Private sector and public sector enterprises.
• Forms of public sector enterprises: features, merits and limitations of departmental undertakings, statutory corporation and Government Company.
• Changing role of public sector enterprises.
• Global enterprises, Joint ventures, Public Private Partnership – Features

• Banking: Types of bank accounts- savings, current, recurring, fixed deposit and multiple option deposit account.
• Banking services with particular reference to issue of bank draft, banker’s cheque (pay order), RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement) NEFT (National Electronic Funds Transfer), bank overdraft, cash credits and e- banking.
• Insurance: principles, concept of life, health, fire and marine insurance.
• Postal and telecom services: mail (UPC, registered post, parcel, speed post and courier) and other services.

### Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business

• E-business – scope and benefits, resources required for successful e-business implementation, online transactions, payment mechanism, security and safety of business transactions.
• Outsourcing-concept, need and scope of BPO (business process outsourcing) and KPO (knowledge process outsourcing).
• Smart cards and ATM’s meaning and utility

• Concept of social responsibility
• Case for social responsibility
• Responsibility towards owners, investors, consumers, employees, government and community

### Unit 7: Sources of Business Finance

• Owner’s funds – equity shares, preference share, GDR, ADR, IDR and retained earnings.
• Borrowed funds: debentures and bonds, loan from financial institution, loans from commercial banks, public deposits, trade credit, ICD (inter corporate deposits).

• Small scale enterprise as defined by MSMED Act 2006 (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act).
• Role of small business in India with special reference to rural areas.
• Government schemes and agencies for small scale industries: (National Small Industries Corporation) and DIC (District Industrial Center) with special reference to rural, backward and hilly areas.

• Services rendered by a wholesaler and a retailer
• Types of retail – trade – Itinerant and small scale fixed shops
• Large scale retailers – Departmental stores, chain stores, mail order business
• Concept of automatic vending machine
• Chambers of Commerce and Industry: Basic functions
• Main documents used in internal trade: Performa invoice, invoice, debit note, credit note. LR (Lorry receipt) and RR (Railway Receipt)
• Terms of Trade: COD (Cash on Delivery), FOB (Free on Board), CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), E&OE (Errors and Omissions Excepted)

• Import Trade – Meaning, objective and procedure: Meaning and functions of import trade; purpose and procedure
• Documents involved in International Trade; documents involved in export trade, indent, letter of credit, shipping order, shipping bills, mate’s receipt, bill of lading, certificate of origin, consular invoice, documentary bill of exchange (DA/DP), specimen, importance
• World Trade Organization (WTO) meaning and objective

Commerce Class 11 Syllabus for Accountancy: Find below the blueprint for the final examination of Accountancy in class 11 as given by the CBSE

 Units Marks Part A Financial Accounting – I 1. Theoretical Framework 15 2. Accounting Process 35 Total 50 Part B Financial Accounting – II 3. Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship 15 4. Financial Statements of Non-Profits 15 5. Computers in Accounting 10 Total 40 Part C Project Work 10 Grand Total Marks 100

Here is the set of broad topics considered in commerce syllabus for class 11 for accounting.

### Unit 1: Theoretical Framework

Introduction to Accounting

• Accounting: objectives, advantages and limitations, types of accounting information; users of accounting information and their needs.
• Basic accounting terms: business transaction, account, capital, drawings, liability (Non – current and current); asset (Non – current; tangible and intangible assets and current assets), receipts (capital and revenue), expenditure (capital, revenue and deferred), expense, income, profits, gains and losses, purchases, purchases returns, sales, sales returns, stock, trade receivables (debtors and bills receivable), trade payables (creditors and bills payable), goods, cost, vouchers, discount – trade and cash.

Theory Base of Accounting

• Fundamental accounting assumptions: going concern, consistency and accrual.
• Accounting principles: accounting entity, money measurement, accounting period, full disclosure, materiality, prudence, cost concept, matching concept and dual aspect.
• Accounting Standards and IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards): concept and objectives
• Double entry system of accounting.
• Bases of accounting – cash basis and accrual basis.

### Unit 2: Accounting Process

Recording of Transactions

• Accounting equation: analysis of transactions using accounting equation.
• Rules of debit and credit: for assets, liabilities, capital, revenue and expenses
• Origin of transactions- source documents (invoice, cash memo, pay in slip, cheque), preparation of vouchers – cash (debit and credit) and non cash (transfer).
• Books of original entry: format and recording – Journal.
• Cash Book: Simple Cash Book, Cash Book with Discount Column and Cash Book with Bank and Discount Columns, Petty Cash Book.
• Other books: purchases book, sales book, purchases returns book, sales returns book and journal proper.

Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement, Ledger and Trial Balance.

• Bank reconciliation statement- calculating bank balance at accounting date: need and preparation. Corrected cash book balance.
• Ledger – format, posting from journal, cash book and other special purpose books, balancing of accounts.
• Trial balance: objectives and preparation

(Scope: Trial Balance with balance method only)

Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

• Depreciation: concept need and factors affecting depreciation; methods of computation of depreciation: straight line method, written down value method (excluding change in method)
• Accounting treatment of depreciation: by charging to asset account, by creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account, treatment of disposal of asset.
• Provisions and reserves: concept, objectives and difference between provisions and reserves; types of reserves- revenue reserve, capital reserve, general reserve and specific reserves.

Accounting for Bills of Exchange

• Bills of exchange and promissory note: definition, features, parties, specimen and distinction.
• Important terms : term of bill, due date, days of grace, date of maturity, discounting of bill, endorsement of bill, bill sent for collection, dishonour of bill, noting of bill, retirement and renewal of a bill.
• Accounting treatment of bill transactions.

Rectification of Errors

• Errors: types-errors of omission, commission, principles, and compensating; their effect on Trial Balance.
• Detection and rectification of errors; preparation of suspense account.

### Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

• Financial Statements: objective and importance.
• Trading and profit and loss account: gross profit, operating profit and net profit.
• Balance Sheet: need, grouping, marshalling of assets and liabilities.
• Adjustments in preparation of financial statements : with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, manager’s commission, abnormal loss, goods taken for personal use and goods distributed as free samples.
• Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship.
• Incomplete records: use and limitations.
• Ascertainment of profit/loss by statement of affairs method.

### Unit 4: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

• Not-for-profit organizations: concept.
• Receipts and Payment account: features.
• Income and Expenditure account: features. Preparation of Income and Expenditure account and Balance Sheet from the given Receipts and Payments account with additional information.

Scope:

1. Adjustments in a question should not exceed 3 or 4 in number and restricted to subscriptions, consumption of consumables, and sale of assets/ old material.
2. Entrance/ admission fees and general donations are to be treated as revenue receipts.
3. Trading Account of incidental activities is not to be prepared.

### Unit 5: Computers in Accounting

• Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System {AIS}: Introduction to computers (Elements, Capabilities, Limitations of Computer system),
• Introduction to operating software, utility software and application software. Introduction to Accounting Information System (AIS), as a part of MIS
• Automation of Accounting Process. Meaning
• Stages in automation
• (a) Accounting process in a computerised environment; comparison between manual accounting process and Computerised accounting process.
• (b) Sourcing of accounting Software; kinds of software: readymade software; customised software and tailor-made software; Generic Considerations before sourcing accounting software
• (c) Creation of Account groups and hierarchy
• (d) Generation of reports -Trial balance, Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet.

Scope:

• The scope of the unit is to understand accounting as an information system for the generation of accounting information and preparation of accounting reports.
• It is presumed that the working knowledge of any appropriate accounting software will be given to the students to help them learn basic accounting operations on computers

### Part C: Project Work (10 Marks)

Project work is an important part of Commerce Class 11 syllabus for CBSE.

Any One:

1. Collection of Source Documents,Preparation of Vouchers, Recording of Transactions with the help of vouchers.
2. Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement with the given cash book and the pass book with twenty to twenty-five transactions.
3. Comprehensive project starting with journal entries regarding any sole proprietorship business, posting them to the ledger and preparation of Trial balance.The students will then prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account on the basis of the prepared trial balance. Expenses, incomes and profit (loss) are to be depicted using pie chart / bar diagram.

This was the broad commerce class 11 syllabus for CBSE. For more such articles, keep following us here.

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