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Eli Ginzberg (1911-2002) was an economist. He was allotted grant from the University of Columbia. Which permitted him to study Ginzberg Theory of Vocational Guidance. For this, he interviewed many people of the upper middle class to know their opportunity of career choices.
Ginzberg considered that studying their opportunities will unfold the process of choosing a career from babyhood to maturity.
Apart from Ginzberg, Sol W. Ginsburg, Sidney Axelrad, and John L. Herma also contributed to this study. Furthermore, they help in forecasting, conferencing, contributing, data examining, and inscription. However, not everyone agreed with this theory and had conflicting views. To know more, read about it here. In this article, we will learn the stages and factors of Ginzberg’s Theory.

Ginzberg’s Theory

According to the theory, a career is a long-term process. That requires education, vision, values, goals, skills, and interests. Due to this, Ginzberg also mentions that vocational choices of individuals are divided into 3 stages namely:
1. Childhood or infancy
2. Adolescence
3. Adulthood or maturity

Stage one – Childhood (2 to 11 years)

In this first stage, the child does a playful imitation. He role-plays and mimics many roles. Similarly, the roles include fire-fighter, policeman, doctor, racer, and many more. According to Ginzberg, children evolve from playful reproduction. In addition, they work simulation near the end of this stage.

Stage two – Adolescence (11-17 years)

In this second stage, kids start to become aware of their surroundings. Which help them start developing skills, abilities, and talents. Apart from that, they are characterized by their interests and values. This stage is characterized by four main points
Interest: Their fondness and dislikes.
Capacity: The things they are better at. Compared to the ones at which they aren’t.
Value: What’s important to them and what’s not?
Changeover: The person takes for granted, his responsibilities, for his own dealings.

Stage Three – Adulthood (Above 17 years)

In this last stage, the actual career begins to appear apparently. The kid becomes aware of college life and different paths. Firstly, they begin to recognize vocation alternatives. Secondly, they make backup plans in case the original does not work. Thirdly and lastly, this Stage is characterized by three sub stages that are listed below:

  • Exploration stage: In this first part, the individual decides his trail. But remains untied to other choices.
  • Crystallization: In this second part, the individual becomes dedicated to one option. Alongside, he focuses on other options.
  • Specification: In this last part, the individual build-up fondness. Similarly, he takes precise interest for part of the profession.

Conclusion of Ginzberg’s Theory

From this theory, Ginzberg drew out the following conclusions:

  1. The process of career choice is limited to adolescence and adulthood stage.
  2. Due to crisis and many other reasons, people change their occupation.
  3. After retirement, their occupation changes.

This theory is also known as Developmental Theory. After this theory published. Many new and improved theories were proposed by various scientists. But, the vocational theory still serves as the base theory for career progress.

Factors Influencing Vocational Choice

The choices of individual that influence vocational choices are as follows:
1. Diverse life responsibilities: Every person has to play different responsibilities at home and office. He decides and chooses the best role which is more significant to him.
2. Traits and interests: Every person is unique in his own way. Therefore, every aspect of personal life is different from others.
3. Cultural Background: The principles and the regional area also affect the personal choice for work preferences. The surrounding and the people around us also affect our choices of work.
4. Economic and social circumstances: It’s natural that our choices get affected according to economic and social circumstances. The social and economic life plays an important role in changing your choices.
5. Financial stability: Money is one of the main reasons for some to change future choices. You make the correct and reasonable choices. You finalize your choices according to your financial status.
6. Career guidance: Some individuals do not receive proper career guidance which causes them to choose the wrong one. That leads them to a non-inspirational and boring career choice.

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