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The process of creating goods from raw materials in large quantities is known as manufacturing. The process of manufacturing adds value to the product and increases its utility. The sum total of the manufacturing activity of an economy is termed as the manufacturing sector and is a part of the secondary industry. It is said, by different schools of thoughts, that the development and growth of the manufacturing sector can be taken to be the yardstick of the economic growth and strength of a country. The manufacturing sector is seen to be extremely important because it not only helps in modernizing agriculture but also helps in the reduction of over-dependence on agriculture sector by providing job opportunities. It also acts as an aid to reduce poverty as well as unemployment and further helps the economy to earn foreign exchange. It also helps in increasing the standard of living of the economy by providing different baskets of goods and services. The manufacturing industry helps remove regional disparities as well. Mentioned below are a few questions that would form important parts of your Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes –

Some important questions for your Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes:

  1. What are the various classifications of industries?

    Answer: a) On the basis of raw material usage, industries are either mineral-based or agro-based.
    b) On the basis of their primary role, they are divided into key industries and consumer industries.
    c) On the basis of the capital investment, they are divided into a cottage industry, small-scale industry, and large-scale industry.
    d) On the basis of ownership, they are divided into the public sector, private sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.
    e) On the basis of the bulkiness of the raw material used it is divided into heavy and light industries.

  2. What are the various agro-based industries?

    Answer: The various agro-based industries are cotton industry, jute industry, silk industry, woolen industry, sugar industry, edible oil industry etc.

  3. What are the few problems associated with the cotton textile industry?

    Answer: There are some extremely crucial problems that the cotton textile industry is facing now. It is experiencing an irregular supply of electric power and is mainly operated by old, obsolete and outdated machines and technology. The labour output is low and the synthetic fiber industry is a major competition for it.

  4. What are the various mineral based industries?

    Answer: The various mineral based industries are iron and steel industry, cement industry, aluminium industry, petrochemical industry etc.

  5. What are some factors that influence the location of various locations?

    Answer: The industries are not located arbitrarily. There are various factors that affect the position and location of industries. These factors include:
    a) Transportation and communication facility.
    b) Banking and insurance availability.
    c) The availability of labourers, both skilled and unskilled.
    d) The extent of availability of capital.
    e) The presence of war material, water and energy sources.

  6. Write a short note on the cotton industry of India.

    Answer: The cotton industry of India is one of the oldest industries in the country, the first being established in 1854. Currently, there are 1600 mills in India that are majorly located in Gujarat and Maharashtra. There are three ways of production of textile, namely handloom, power loom and mills. This industry comprises of various activities like spinning, weaving and dying. The finished product is then passed through the processes of designing and tailoring to suit demands. The yarns and garments produced in the country are exported to Developed Nations like USA, UK, Japan etc. However, in spite of it being one of the oldest industries, it is facing some issues related to the low output of labour, competition from the synthetic sector, irregular power supply, obsolete machinery and technology, and scarcity of fine quality cotton.

  7. Write a short note on the jute industry.

    Answer: India produces the maximum amount and jute and jute products. The country has more than 70 jute mills and is majorly located along the Hooghly River, West Bengal. The first jute mill was established in the year 1859 but is now facing issues pertaining to the high cost of production, low demand of jute and competition from the synthetic sector. The jute mills are located in the bank of the Hooghly River because there is an abundance of jute, coal energy, water, capital, and market. Further, the climate is favorable for this industry as well.

  8. What are the various types of pollution?

    Answer: The various types of pollution are:
    a) Air pollution caused by the presence of pollutants in the air like dust, smoke, and sprays.
    b) Water pollution caused by industrial wastes being dumped in the water. These wastes include lead, fertilizers, flash etc.
    c) Thermal pollution caused by nuclear plants causing fatal consequences.
    d) Noise pollution caused by excess noise in the environment leading to high blood pressure, uneasiness and increase in heart rate.

  9. What are some control measures that can be taken to stop environmental degradation?

    Answer: Environmental degradation is an issue that is gaining tremendous importance with increasing industrialization. There are few steps that can be taken to stop the damage caused to the environment. They are:
    a) The three R’s, reuse, reduce, recycle
    b) Rainwater harvesting
    c) Treating water for effluents before they are released by primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment involves mechanical means of screening, followed by grinding, flocculation and sedimentation. The biological process comprises the secondary treatment. Tertiary treatment involves recycling wastewater. This is with the help of physical, biological and chemical process.
    d) Fitting the chimneys with electrostatic precipitators. This controls air pollution by minimizing the release of effluent into the air.
    e) Using oil instead of coal can reduce the emission of smoke.
    f) Non-conventional source of energy can be used.
    g) Landfilling should be used for waste dumping.

  10. Write a short note Iron and Steel Industry.

    Answer: This industry is also known as the basic industry as it is a source of raw material for almost all other industries. However, it is also called a heavy industry due to the raw material used. This industry produces 33 mn tones of steel annually. India is characterized by low per capita consumption of steel due to its low development. Majorly, all steel plants are situated in Chotanagar region, mainly because of its condition. Some steel plants that are worth mentioning are Durgapur, Bhilai, Jamshedpur, Bokaro etc.

    We believe these important questions will make it to your manufacturing industries class 10 notes.To know more about class 10 social science, click here.

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