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NCERT which stands for National Council of Educational Research and Training is an autonomous organization that sets the curriculum for the Central Board of Secondary Education, an education board adopted by various schools across the nation. The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry includes answers to questions prescribed in textbooks adhering to school and exam syllabi. The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry includes answers to questions ranging across various chapters such as the Structure of Atom, States of Matter, Thermodynamics, Equilibrium, Redox Reactions, Hydrogen, and others. Studying the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry assists students in acquiring a foundational knowledge for understanding different chemistry topics and solving various chemical equations. Students who are preparing for various entrance and board exams and competitive exams such as the IIT-JEE will find the Class 11 Chemistry NCERT Solutions guide to be helpful in their exam prep.

CHAPTER 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY

Chemistry is a subdivision of science which deals with matter; its properties, structure, and composition. It is also commonly known as the science of all atoms and molecules.

Chemistry contains several other branches which include:

  • Organic chemistry
  • Analytical chemistry
  • Inorganic chemistry
  • Industrial chemistry
  • Physical chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear chemistry

Every substance in this universe has its own set of unique properties, both physical and chemical.

The International System of Units was set up and it contains the categories of 7 physical quantities which include:

  • Length
  • Mass
  • Time
  • Temperature
  • Electric current
  • Luminous intensity
  • Amount of a substance

CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM

Atom is the smallest particle of matter which is indivisible and composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Electrons were discovered by Sir J.J Thompson using the Cathode Ray Discharge tube experiment.

Neutrons were discovered by the scientist named James Chadwick by performing an experiment where he attacked a thin sheet of Beryllium with Alpha particles.

Protons were discovered by Goldstein.

Those radiations that are related to electrical and magnetic fields are termed as electromagnetic radiation. These fields are transmitted in the form of waves. The radiations are characterized by wavelength, frequency, and velocity while exhibiting dual behavior.

CHAPTER 3: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY

According to Mendeleev, his law states that: the properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses.

The Modern Periodic Law states that the chemical and physical properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic numbers.

The different types of elements are contained in the s,p,d and f blocks.

Those elements belonging to the s and p block are termed as representative or main group elements.

The d block elements are termed as transition elements, while the f block elements are termed as inner transition elements.

The gaseous elements belong to group 18 and are termed as Noble gases.

The atoms are grouped according to the following properties:

  • Atomic size and radius
  • Ionization energy
  • Electro-negativity
  • Number of valence electrons

CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

The Octet rule implies that the atoms tend to adjust their electronic configuration such that they are able to obtain 8 electrons in their outer most orbital.

A chemical bond is any bond which keeps or bonds the atoms in a molecule.

An ionic bond is a bond which binds together oppositely charged ions. This bond is formed due to the transfer of one or more electron from the atom of a metal to a non-metal.

Electrovalency is defined as the number of electrons an atom gains or loses. when it gives up an electron, the atom obtains a positive charge.

CHAPTER 5: STATES OF MATTER

An overall change in intermolecular force, molecular interactional energy as well as thermal energy is termed as a change in state.

Gases are measured according to pressure, temperature, volume, viscosity as well as specific heat.

In the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT

According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory:

Gases contain a large number of identical particles.

There is absolutely no force of attraction between the particles in a gas form at standard temperature and pressure.

The particles are always in constant and random motion.

The average kinetic energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

CHAPTER 6: THERMODYNAMICS

This is the branch of science deals with the different energy forms and their quantitative relationship.

The state of a system is measured in terms of temperature, volume, and pressure.

Matter has both intensive and extensive properties. Intensive properties include temperature, pressure, and density while the extensive properties include mass, volume and heat capacity.

The internal energy is defined as the total energy of a system.

CHAPTER 7: EQUILIBRIUM

A state is said to be in the equilibrium state when the rate of formation of a product is competing with the rate of formation of the reactant.

Factors which affect the equilibrium constant include:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Catalyst
  • The molar concentration of products and reactants

CHAPTER 8: REDOX REACTIONS

All the chemical reactions in which atoms have their own state of oxidation state changed are referred to as redox reactions. These reactions trigger the transfer of electrons between several chemical species.

CHAPTER 9: HYDROGEN

Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table with n electronic configuration of 1s1. It exhibits dual behavior due to the presence of only a single electron in its 1s orbital. It is due to this reason that it is similar to both alkali metals and halogens.

Hydrogen has three isotopes:

  • Deuterium
  • Protium
  • Tritium

CHAPTER 10: THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS

Groups 1 and 2 belong to the s-block on the Periodic Table.

Physical properties that are dependent include:

  • Large atomic radii
  • Large ionic radii
  • Low ionization enthalpy
  • Hydration enthalpy
  • Oxidation state
  • Melting and boiling point
  • Nature of the bonds formed

CHAPTER 11: THE p-BLOCK ELEMENTS

Groups 13 to 18 belong to the p-block on the Periodic Table

These elements have the electrons that enter in any one of the three p-orbitals of the outermost shells.

The inner core electronic configuration greatly differs which affects their physical and chemical properties.

CHAPTER 12: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Those compounds that contain hydrocarbons and their derivatives are termed as organic compounds. Hence, organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry and science that deals with these substances.

The following are the functional groups present:

ncert chemistry class 11 solutions

CHAPTER 13: HYDROCARBONS

Hydrocarbons are those substances that are composed of hydrogen and carbon.

Important hydrocarbons in daily life include fuels, petrol, kerosene and coal gas.

They can be classified in the following manner:

CHAPTER 14: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

This chapter deals with the effect of different chemical pollution and how it affects the Earth’s atmosphere.

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