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NCERT Economics class 11 books are extremely helpful for the students. Economics is a subject that cannot only be termed as a social science but can also be said to possess the power to explain the working of the economy. From what the economy produces, to what is the rationale behind it, from the standard of living of the country to the history behind it, economics explains it all. Hence, in class 11, the syllabus aims to give students an idea of the economic history of our nation and familiarize them with general economic terms like poverty, inflation, unemployment etc.

The various topics that are included in the NCERT Economics class 11 syllabus are:

  1. Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence
  2. Indian Economy in the period 1950-1990
  3. LPG (Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization)
  4. Poverty
  5. Human Capital Formation
  6. Rural Development
  7. Employment
  8. Infrastructure
  9. Environment and Sustainable Development
  10. Comparative Development Experiences of India

Indian Economy on the eve of Independence

This chapter aims to explain the policies undertaken by the British government and what were its impacts, which were some of the pioneering economists during that period, what caused economic stagnation and what was the industrial structure of the Indian Economy at that time. It also touches on the infrastructural policies adopted by the colonial rulers, the demographic transition, occupational structure, and trade and wealth drainage.


Indian Economy in the period 1950-1990

This topic explains what a plan is and why did India move towards a planned economy. It gives you an overview of various elements of a plan and also the land reform measures that were adopted during that period. It further explains the rationale behind the same. This chapter aims to bring in the concept of Green Revolution and its benefits along with the various components of it. Planning contradictions, sectoral composition, self-reliance, subsidies and import substitution are some other terms that are discussed in this segment.



Some topics discussed in this segment are reasons behind reforms, the role of the RBI and its control mechanism, devaluation, measures like tariff imposition and quantitative restrictions, outsourcing, PSUs, the growth rate of various sectors in the Indian Economy, Social welfare and justice etc.


This unit explains topics like measures to define and identify poverty, policies are undertaken by the government as a part of the poverty alleviation program, three-dimensional attack, relation between poverty and unemployment, rural and urban poverty, etc.


Human Capital Formation

Sources of human capital, measures of education development, the concept of regionalism, human development, contributors to human capital formation, regulators of health and education sector, human capital investment, inequality and economic development, women’s and their contribution in human capital formation and development, problems pertaining to human capital formation and government regulation are some important topics that have been discussed in this chapter.


Rural Development

Meaning of rural development, key issues related to it, credit system in rural India, microcredit, government intervention in rural development, agricultural diversification, agricultural marketing, its channels and factors influencing it, Green and Golden Revolution, non farm employment, different sources of diversification, importance of Information Technology, Organic farming have all been discussed in length in this segment.



This chapter talks about the definition of a worker, worker – population ratio, identifying a person as a worker, differences in the working class in rural and urban India, workforce distribution in India, informal and formal sector, employed men and women in rural and urban sector, sectoral distribution in workforce and trends in nature of employment.



This section talks about and explains the term infrastructure, in the broader sense, what are the various kinds of infrastructures in an economy, relationship between infrastructure and production and economic development, rural infrastructure, what is energy and why is it crucial, what are the two types of energy, sources of power generation, transmission and distribution loss, energy crisis, consumption pattern of the economy, problems faced by the power sector, reforms to meet the crisis in this sector, health and diseases, limitations of our health sector and public health.


Environment and Sustainable Development

Meaning of environment, rate of extraction, rate of regeneration, renewable and non-renewable resources, environmental issues and factors contributing to it, functions of the environment, land degeneration, steps to achieve sustainable development, environment crisis, supply-demand reversal, India’s development acting as a contributor to environmental degradation, concept of sustainable development, strategies for sustainable development and the concept of intergenerational equity are all spoken of in this chapter.


Comparative Development Experience – India

This segment talks of regional groupings, economic groupings, means to strengthen domestic economy, development strategy comparison between India and Pakistan, initiatives taken by Pakistan for development, slow economic growth in Pakistan and its reasons, development strategy comparison between India and China, Great Leap Forward Campaign undertaken by China, factors leading to the development in China, demographic indicators – China, Pakistan and India.


The subtopics mentioned above, under each chapter, are those that are important and extremely crucial to understanding the summary of the whole segment. Knowing the concepts of these will result in the student understanding the whole segment. Further, these subheads can give you an idea as to what are the kinds of questions you can expect in the examination. Knowing these will increase your confidence and help you with your preparations.

For Economics sample paper for class 11, click here.

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