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NCERT Exemplar for Class 10

Science from NCERT Exemplar for Class 10

Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions and Equations

Multiple Choice Questions from NCERT Exemplar for Class 10

1. Which of the following is not a physical change?
(a) Boiling of water to give water vapour
(b) Melting of ice to give water
(c) Dissolution of salt in water
(d) Combustion of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

2. The following reaction is an example of a 4NH3(g) + 5O2 (g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)
(i) displacement reaction
(ii) combination reaction
(iii) redox reaction
(iv) neutralisation reaction
(a) (i) and (iv) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)

3. Which of the following statements about the given reaction are correct?
3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) → Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)
(i) Iron metal is getting oxidised
(ii) Water is getting reduced
(iii) Water is acting as reducing agent
(iv) Water is acting as oxidising agent
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) (d) (ii) and (iv)

4. Which of the following are exothermic processes?
(i) Reaction of water with quick lime
(ii) Dilution of an acid
(iii) Evaporation of water
(iv) Sublimation of camphor (crystals)
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (iii) and (iv)

5. Three beakers labelled as A, B and C each containing 25 mL of water were taken. A small amount of NaOH, anhydrous CuSO4 and NaCl were added to the beakers A, B and C respectively. It was observed that there was an increase in the temperature of the solutions contained in beakers A and B, whereas in case of beaker C, the temperature of the solution falls. Which one of the following statement(s) is(are) correct?
(i) In beakers A and B, exothermic process has occurred.
(ii) In beakers A and B, endothermic process has occurred.
(iii) In beaker C exothermic process has occurred.
(iv) In beaker C endothermic process has occurred.
(a) (i) only (b) (ii) only
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (ii) and (iii)

6. A dilute ferrous sulphate solution was gradually added to the beaker containing acidified permanganate solution. The light purple colour of the solution fades and finally disappears. Which of the following is the correct explanation for the observation?
(a) KMnO4 is an oxidising agent, it oxidises FeSO4
(b) FeSO4 acts as an oxidising agent and oxidises KMnO4
(c) The colour disappears due to dilution; no reaction is involved
(d) KMnO4 is an unstable compound and decomposes in presence of FeSO4 to a colourless compound.

7. Which among the following is(are) double displacement reaction(s)?
(i) Pb + CuCl2 → PbCl 2+ Cu
(ii) Na2SO4 + BaCl2 → BaSO4 + 2NaCl
(iii) C + O2 → CO2
(iv) CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
(a) (i) and (iv) (b) (ii) only
(c) (i) and (ii) (d) (iii) and (iv)

8. Which among the following statement(s) is(are) true? Exposure of silver chloride to sunlight for a long duration turns grey due to (i) the formation of silver by decomposition of silver chloride
(ii) sublimation of silver chloride
(iii) decomposition of chlorine gas from silver chloride
(iv) oxidation of silver chloride
(a) (i) only (b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iv) only

9. Solid calcium oxide reacts vigorously with water to form calcium hydroxide accompanied by liberation of heat. This process is called slaking of lime. Calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to form its solution called lime water. Which among the following is (are) true about slaking of lime and the solution formed? (i) It is an endothermic reaction
(ii) It is an exothermic reaction
(iii) The pH of the resulting solution will be more than seven
(iv) The pH of the resulting solution will be less than seven
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (iii) and (iv)

10. Barium chloride on reacting with ammonium sulphate forms barium sulphate and ammonium chloride. Which of the following correctly represents the type of the reaction involved?
(i) Displacement reaction
(ii) Precipitation reaction
(iii) Combination reaction
(iv) Double displacement reaction
(a) (i) only (b) (ii) only
(c) (iv) only (d) (ii) and (iv)

11. Electrolysis of water is a decomposition reaction. The mole ratio of hydrogen and oxygen gases liberated during electrolysis of water is
(a) 1:1
(b) 2:1
(c) 4:1
(d) 1:2

12. Which of the following is(are) an endothermic process(es)?
(i) Dilution of sulphuric acid
(ii) Sublimation of dry ice
(iii) Condensation of water vapours
(iv) Evaporation of water
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (ii) only
(c) (iii) only (d) (ii) and (iv)

13. In the double displacement reaction between aqueous potassium iodide and aqueous lead nitrate, a yellow precipitate of lead iodide is formed. While performing the activity if lead nitrate is not available, which of the following can be used in place of lead nitrate?
(a) Lead sulphate (insoluble)
(b) Lead acetate
(c) Ammonium nitrate
(d) Potassium sulphate

14. Which of the following gases can be used for storage of fresh sample of an oil for a long time?
(a) Carbon dioxide or oxygen
(b) Nitrogen or oxygen
(c) Carbon dioxide or helium
(d) Helium or nitrogen

15. The following reaction is used for the preparation of oxygen gas in the laboratory
2KClO3(s) [HeatCatalyst] ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ 2KCl (s) + 3O2 (g)
Which of the following statement(s) is(are) correct about the reaction?
(a) It is a decomposition reaction and endothermic in nature
(b) It is a combination reaction
(c) It is a decomposition reaction and accompanied by release of heat
(d) It is a photochemical decomposition reaction and exothermic in nature

16. Which one of the following processes involve chemical reactions?
(a) Storing of oxygen gas under pressure in a gas cylinder
(b) Liquefaction of air
(c) Keeping petrol in a china dish in the open
(d) Heating copper wire in presence of air at high temperature

17. In which of the following chemical equations, the abbreviations represent the correct states of the reactants and products involved at reaction temperature?
(a) 2H2(l) + O2(l) → 2H2O(g)
(b) 2H2(g) + O2(l) → 2H2O(l)
(c) 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l)
(d) 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g)

18. Which of the following are combination reactions?
(i) 2KClO3 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Heat → 2KCl + 3O2
(ii) MgO + H2O ⎯→ Mg(OH)2
(iii) 4Al + 3O2 ⎯→ 2Al2 O3
(iv) Zn + FeSO4 ⎯→ ZnSO+ Fe
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iv) (d) (ii) and (iii)

19. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions and identify the type of reaction in each case.
(a) Nitrogen gas is treated with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst at 773K to form ammonia gas.
(b) Sodium hydroxide solution is treated with acetic acid to form sodium acetate and water.
(c) Ethanol is warmed with ethanoic acid to form ethyl acetate in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 .
(d) Ethene is burnt in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and releases heat and light.

20. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions and identify the type of reaction in each case.
(a) Thermit reaction, iron (III) oxide reacts with aluminium and gives molten iron and aluminium oxide.
(b) Magnesium ribbon is burnt in an atmosphere of nitrogen gas to form solid magnesium nitride.
(c) Chlorine gas is passed in an aqueous potassium iodide solution to form potassium chloride solution and solid iodine.
(d) Ethanol is burnt in air to form carbon dioxide, water and releases heat.

21. Complete the missing components/variables given as x and y in the following reactions
(a) Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI(aq) ⎯→ PbI2(x) + 2KNO3(y)
(b) Cu(s) + 2Ag NO3(aq) ⎯→ Cu(NO3)2(aq) + x(s)
(c) Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq) ⎯→ ZnSO4(x) + H2(y)
(d) CaCO3(s) ⎯⎯⎯x → CaO(s) + CO2(g)

22. Which among the following changes are exothermic or endothermic in nature?
(a) Decomposition of ferrous sulphate
(b) Dilution of sulphuric acid
(c) Dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water
(d) Dissolution of ammonium chloride in water

23. Identify the reducing agent in the following reactions
(a) 4NH3+ 5O2⎯→ 4NO + 6H2O
(b) H2O + F2 ⎯→ HF + HOF
(c) Fe2O3+ 3CO ⎯→ 2Fe + 3CO2
(d) 2H2 + O2 ⎯→ 2H2O

24. Identify the oxidising agent (oxidant) in the following reactions
(a) Pb3O4 + 8HCl ⎯→ 3PbCl2 + Cl2 + 4H2O
(b) 2Mg + O2 ⎯→ 2MgO
(c) CuSO4 + Zn ⎯→ Cu + ZnSO4
(d) V2O5 + 5Ca ⎯→ 2V + 5CaO
(e) 3Fe + 4H2O ⎯→ Fe3O4 + 4H2
(f) CuO + H2 ⎯→ Cu + H2O

25. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions
(a) Sodium carbonate on reaction with hydrochloric acid in equal molar concentrations gives sodium chloride and sodium hydrogencarbonate.
(b) Sodium hydrogencarbonate on reaction with hydrochloric acid gives sodium chloride, water and liberates carbon dioxide.
(c) Copper sulphate on treatment with potassium iodide precipitates cuprous iodide (Cu2 I2), liberates iodine gas and also forms potassium sulphate.

26. A solution of potassium chloride when mixed with silver nitrate solution, an insoluble white substance is formed. Write the chemical reaction involved and also mention the type of the chemical reaction?

27. Ferrous sulphate decomposes with the evolution of a gas having a characteristic odour of burning sulphur. Write the chemical reaction involved and identify the type of reaction.

28. Why do fire flies glow at night?

29. Grapes hanging on the plant do not ferment but after being plucked from the plant can be fermented. Under what conditions do these grapes ferment? Is it a chemical or a physical change?

30. Which among the following are physical or chemical changes?
(a) Evaporation of petrol
(b) Burning of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
(c) Heating of an iron rod to red hot.
(d) Curdling of milk
(e) Sublimation of solid ammonium chloride

31. During the reaction of some metals with dilute hydrochloric acid, following observations were made.
(a) Silver metal does not show any change
(b) The temperature of the reaction mixture rises when aluminium
(Al) is added.
(c) The reaction of sodium metal is found to be highly explosive
(d) Some bubbles of a gas are seen when lead (Pb) is reacted with
the acid.

32. A substance X, which is an oxide of a group 2 element, is used intensively in the cement industry. This element is present in bones also. On treatment with water it forms a solution which turns red litmus blue. Identify X and also write the chemical reactions involved.

33. Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following reactions and also classify them.
(a) Lead acetate solution is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to form lead chloride and acetic acid solution.
(b) A piece of sodium metal is added to absolute ethanol to form sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
(c) Iron (III) oxide on heating with carbon monoxide gas reacts to form solid iron and liberates carbon dioxide gas.
(d) Hydrogen sulphide gas reacts with oxygen gas to form solid sulphur and liquid water.

34. Why do we store silver chloride in dark coloured bottles?

35. Balance the following chemical equations and identify the type of chemical reaction.
(a) Mg(s) + Cl2(g) ⎯→ MgCl2(s)
(b) HgO(s) ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Heat → Hg(l) + O2(g)
(c) Na(s) + S(s) ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Fuse Na2S(s)
(d) TiCl4(l) + Mg(s) ⎯→ Ti(s) + MgCl2(s)
(e) CaO(s) + SiO2(s) ⎯→ CaSiO3(s)
(f) H2O2(l) ⎯⎯⎯⎯ U V → H2O(l) + O2(g)

36. A magnesium ribbon is burnt in oxygen to give a white compound X accompanied by emission of light. If the burning ribbon is now placed in an atmosphere of nitrogen, it continues to burn and forms a compound Y.
(a) Write the chemical formulae of X and Y. (b) Write a balanced chemical equation, when X is dissolved in

37. Zinc liberates hydrogen gas when reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid, whereas copper does not. Explain why?

38. A silver article generally turns black when kept in the open for a few days. The article when rubbed with toothpaste again starts shining.
(a) Why do silver articles turn black when kept in the open for a
few days? Name the phenomenon involved.
(b) Name the black substance formed and give its chemical formula.

39. On heating blue coloured powder of copper (II) nitrate in a boiling tube, copper oxide (black), oxygen gas and a brown gas X is formed
(a) Write a balanced chemical equation of the reaction.
(b) Identity the brown gas X evolved.
(c) Identity the type of reaction.
(d) What could be the pH range of aqueous solution of the gas X?

40. Give the characteristic tests for the following gases
(a) CO2
(b) SO2
(c) O2
(d) H2

41. What happens when a piece of
(a) zinc metal is added to copper sulphate solution?
(b) aluminium metal is added to dilute hydrochloric acid?
(c) silver metal is added to copper sulphate solution?
Also, write the balanced chemical equation if the reaction occurs

42. What happens when zinc granules are treated with dilute solutionof H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, NaCl and NaOH, also write the chemicalequations if reaction occurs.

43. On adding a drop of barium chloride solution to an aqueous solution of sodium sulphite, white precipitate is obtained.
(a) Write a balanced chemical equation of the reaction involved
(b) What other name can be given to this precipitation reaction?
(c) On adding dilute hydrochloric acid to the reaction mixture, white precipitate disappears. Why?

44. You are provided with two containers made up of copper and aluminium. You are also provided with solutions of dilute HCl, dilute HNO3, ZnCl2 and H2O. In which of the above containers these solutions can be kept?

Chapter 2: Acids, Bases and Salts

Multiple Choice Questions from NCERT Exemplar for class 10

1. What happens when a solution of an acid is mixed with a solution of a base in a test tube?
(i) The temperature of the solution increases
(ii) The temperature of the solution decreases
(iii) The temperature of the solution remains the same
(iv) Salt formation takes place
(a) (i) only (b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (i) and (iv)

2. An aqueous solution turns red litmus solution blue. Excess addition of which of the following solution would reverse the change?
(a) Baking powder
(b) Lime
(c) Ammonium hydroxide solution
(d) Hydrochloric acid

3. During the preparation of hydrogen chloride gas on a humid day, the gas is usually passed through the guard tube containing calcium chloride. The role of calcium chloride taken in the guard tube is to
(a) absorb the evolved gas
(b) moisten the gas
(c) absorb moisture from the gas
(d) absorb Cl– ions from the evolved gas

4. Which of the following salts does not contain water of crystallisation?
(a) Blue vitriol
(b) Baking soda
(c) Washing soda
(d) Gypsum
Acids, Bases
and Salts

5. Sodium carbonate is a basic salt because it is a salt of
(a) strong acid and strong base
(b) weak acid and weak base
(c) strong acid and weak base
(d) weak acid and strong base

6. Calcium phosphate is present in tooth enamel. Its nature is
(a) basic
(b) acidic
(c) neutral
(d) amphoteric

7. A sample of soil is mixed with water and allowed to settle. The clear supernatant solution turns the pH paper yellowish-orange. Which of the following would change the colour of this pH paper to greenish-blue?
(a) Lemon juice
(b) Vinegar
(c) Common salt
(d) An antacid

8. Which of the following gives the correct increasing order of acidic strength?
(a) Water <Acetic acid <Hydrochloric acid
(b) Water <Hydrochloric acid <Acetic acid
(c) Acetic acid <Water <Hydrochloric acid
(d) Hydrochloric acid <Water <Acetic acid

9. If a few drops of a concentrated acid accidentally spills over the hand of a student, what should be done?
(a) Wash the hand with saline solution
(b) Wash the hand immediately with plenty of water and apply a paste of sodium hydrogencarbonate
(c) After washing with plenty of water apply solution of sodium hydroxide on the hand
(d) Neutralise the acid with a strong alkali

10. Sodium hydrogencarbonate when added to acetic acid evolves a gas. Which of the following statements are true about the gas evolved?
(i) It turns lime water milky
(ii) It extinguishes a burning splinter
(iii) It dissolves in a solution of sodium hydroxide
(iv) It has a pungent odour
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) (d) (i) and (iv)

11. Common salt besides being used in kitchen can also be used as the raw material for making
(i) washing soda
(ii) bleaching powder
(iii) baking soda
(iv) slaked lime
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i), (ii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iii) (d) (i), (iii) and (iv)

12. One of the constituents of baking powder is sodium hydrogencarbonate, the other constituent is
(a) hydrochloric acid
(b) tartaric acid
(c) acetic acid
(d) sulphuric acid

13. To protect tooth decay we are advised to brush our teeth regularly. The nature of the tooth paste commonly used is
(a) acidic
(b) neutral
(c) basic
(d) corrosive

14. Which of the following statements is correct about an aqueous solution of an acid and of a base?
(i) Higher the pH, stronger the acid
(ii) Higher the pH, weaker the acid
(iii) Lower the pH, stronger the base
(iv) Lower the pH, weaker the base
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (ii) and (iv)

15. The pH of the gastric juices released during digestion is
(a) less than 7
(b) more than 7
(c) equal to 7
(d) equal to 0

16. Which of the following phenomena occur, when a small amount of acid is added to water?
(i) Ionisation
(ii) Neutralisation
(iii) Dilution
(iv) Salt formation
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (ii) and (iv)

17. Which one of the following can be used as an acid–base indicator by a visually impared student?
(a) Litmus
(b) Turmeric
(c) Vanilla essence
(d) Petunia leaves

18. Which of the following substance will not give carbon dioxide on treatment with dilute acid?
(a) Marble
(b) Limestone
(c) Baking soda
(d) Lime

19. Which of the following is acidic in nature?
(a) Lime juice
(b) Human blood
(c) Lime water
(d) Antacid

20. In an attempt to demonstrate electrical conductivity through an electrolyte, the following apparatus
(Figure 2.1) was set up. Which among the following statement(s) is(are) correct?
(i) Bulb will not glow because electrolyte is not acidic
(ii) Bulb will glow because NaOH is a strong base and furnishes ions for conduction.
(iii) Bulb will not glow because circuit is incomplete
(iv) Bulb will not glow because it depends upon the type of electrolytic solution
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) only (c) (iv) only

21. Which of the following is used for dissolution of gold?
(a) Hydrochloric acid
(b) Sulphuric acid
(c) Nitric acid
(d) Aqua regia

22. Which of the following is not a mineral acid?
(a) Hydrochloric acid
(b) Citric acid
(c) Sulphuric acid
(d) Nitric acid

23. Which among the following is not a base?
(a) NaOH
(b) KOH
(c) NH4OH
(d) C2H5 OH

24. Which of the following statements is not correct?
(a) All metal carbonates react with acid to give a salt, water and carbon dioxide
(b) All metal oxides react with water to give salt and acid
(c) Some metals react with acids to give salt and hydrogen
(d) Some non metal oxides react with water to form an acid

25. Match the chemical substances given in Column (A) with their appropriate application given in Column (B)

Column (A) Column (B)
(A) Bleaching powder (i) Preparation of glass
(B) Baking soda (ii) Production of H2 and Cl2
(C) Washing soda (iii) Decolourisation
(D) Sodium chloride  (iv) Antacid

(a) A—(ii), B—(i), C—(iv), D—(iii)
(b) A—(iii), B—(ii), C—(iv), D—(i)
(c) A—(iii), B—(iv), C—(i), D—(ii)
(d) A—(ii), B—(iv), C—(i), D—(iii)

26. Equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions of same concentration are mixed and the pH of the resulting solution is checked with a pH paper. What would be the colour obtained? (You may use colour guide given in Figure 2.2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Figure 2.2

(a) Red
(b) Yellow
(c) Yellowish green
(d) Blue

27. Which of the following is(are) true when HCl (g) is passed through water?
(i) It does not ionise in the solution as it is a covalent compound.
(ii) It ionises in the solution
(iii) It gives both hydrogen and hydroxyl ion in the solution
(iv) It forms hydronium ion in the solution due to the combination of hydrogen ion with water molecule
(a) (i) only (b) (iii) only
(c) (ii) and (iv) (d) (iii) and (iv)

28. Which of the following statements is true for acids?
(a) Bitter and change red litmus to blue
(b) Sour and change red litmus to blue
(c) Sour and change blue litmus to red
(d) Bitter and change blue litmus to red

29. Which of the following are present in a dilute aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid?
(a) H3O++ Cl–
(b) H3O+ + OH–
(c) Cl–+ OH–
(d) unionised HCl

30. Identify the correct representation of reaction occurring during chloralkali process
(a) 2NaCl(l) + 2H2
O(l) → 2NaOH(l) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
(b) 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(aq) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
(c) 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(aq) + H2(aq)
(d) 2NaCl (aq) + 2H2O (l) → 2NaOH (aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)

Short Answer Questions from NCERT Exemplar for class 10

31. Match the acids given in Column (A) with their correct source given in Column (B)

Column A Column B
(a) Lactic acid (i) Tomato
(b) Acetic acid (ii) Lemon
(c) Citric acid (iii) Vinegar
(d) Oxalic acid (iv) Curd

32. Match the important chemicals given in Column (A) with the chemical formulae given in Column (B)

Column (A) Column (B)
(a) Plaster of Paris (i) Ca(OH)2
(b) Gypsum (ii) CaSO4 .1/2 H2O
(c) Bleaching Powder (iii) CaSO4.2H2O
(d) Slaked Lime  (iv) CaOC12

33. What will be the action of the following substances on litmus paper? Dry HCl gas, Moistened NH3 gas, Lemon juice, Carbonated soft drink, Curd, Soap solution.

34. Name the acid present in ant sting and give its chemical formula. Also give the common method to get relief from the discomfort caused by the ant sting.

35. What happens when nitric acid is added to egg shell?

36. A student prepared solutions of (i) an acid and (ii) a base in two separate beakers. She forgot to label the solutions and litmus paper is not available in the laboratory. Since both the solutions are colourless, how will she distinguish between the two?

37. How would you distinguish between baking powder and washing soda by heating?

38. Salt A commonly used in bakery products on heating gets converted into another salt B which itself is used for removal of hardness of water and a gas C is evolved. The gas C when passed through lime water, turns it milky. Identify A, B and C.

39. In one of the industrial processes used for manufacture of sodium hydroxide, a gas X is formed as by product. The gas X reacts with lime water to give a compound Y which is used as a bleaching agent in chemical industry. Identify X and Y giving the chemical equation of the reactions involved.

40. Fill in the missing data in the following table.


41. What are strong and weak acids? In the following list of acids, separate strong acids from weak acids. Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, acetic acid, nitric acid, formic acid, sulphuric acid.

42. When zinc metal is treated with a dilute solution of a strong acid, a gas is evolved, which is utilised in the hydrogenation of oil. Name the gas evolved. Write the chemical equation of the reaction involved and also write a test to detect the gas formed. Long Answer Questions

43. In the following schematic diagram for the preparation of hydrogen gas as shown in Figure 2.3, what would happen if following changes are made?

(a) In place of zinc granules, same amount of zinc dust is taken in the test tube
(b) Instead of dilute sulphuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid is taken
(c) In place of zinc, copper turnings are taken
(d) Sodium hydroxide is taken in place of dilute sulphuric acid and the tube is heated.

44. For making cake, baking powder is taken. If at home your mother uses baking soda instead of baking powder in cake,
(a) how will it affect the taste of the cake and why?
(b) how can baking soda be converted into baking powder?
(c) what is the role of tartaric acid added to baking soda?

45. A metal carbonate X on reacting with an acid gives a gas which when passed through a solution Y gives the carbonate back. On the other hand, a gas G that is obtained at anode during electrolysis of brine is passed on dry Y, it gives a compound Z, used for disinfecting drinking water. Identity X, Y, G and Z.

46. A dry pellet of a common base B, when kept in open absorbs moisture and turns sticky. The compound is also a by–product of chloralkali process. Identify B. What type of reaction occurs when B is treated with an acidic oxide? Write a balanced chemical equation for one such solution.

47. A sulphate salt of Group 2 element of the Periodic Table is a white, soft substance, which can be moulded into different shapes by making its dough. When this compound is left in open for some time, it becomes a solid mass and cannot be used for moulding purposes. Identify the sulphate salt and why does it show such a behaviour? Give the reaction involved.

48. Identify the compound X on the basis of the reactions given below. Also, write the name and chemical formulae of A, B and C.

Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals

Multiple Choice Questions from NCERT Exemplar for class 10

1. Which of the following property is generally not shown by metals?
(a) Electrical conduction
(b) Sonorous in nature
(c) Dullness
(d) Ductility

2. The ability of metals to be drawn into thin wire is known as
(a) ductility
(b) malleability
(c) sonorousity
(d) conductivity

3. Aluminium is used for making cooking utensils. Which of the following properties of aluminium are responsible for the same?
(i) Good thermal conductivity
(ii) Good electrical conductivity
(iii) Ductility
(iv) High melting point
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (i) and (iv)

4. Which one of the following metals do not react with cold as well as
hot water?
(a) Na
(b) Ca
(c) Mg
(d) Fe

5. Which of the following oxide(s) of iron would be obtained on
prolonged reaction of iron with steam?
(a) FeO
(b) Fe2O3
(c) Fe3O4
(d) Fe2O3and Fe3O4

6. What happens when calcium is treated with water?
(i) It does not react with water
(ii) It reacts violently with water
(iii) It reacts less violently with water
(iv) Bubbles of hydrogen gas formed stick to the surface of calcium
(a) (i) and (iv) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (ii) (d) (iii) and (iv)

7. Generally metals react with acids to give salt and hydrogen gas. Which of the following acids does not give hydrogen gas on reacting with metals (except Mn and Mg)?
(a) H2SO4
(b) HCl
(c) HNO3
(d) All of these

8. The composition of aqua-regia is
(a) Dil.HCl : Conc. HNO3 3: 1
(b) Conc.HCl : Dil. HNO3 3: 1
(c) Conc.HCl : Conc.HNO3 3: 1
(d) Dil.HCl : Dil.HNO3 3: 1

9. Which of the following are not ionic compounds?
(i) KCl
(ii) HCl
(iii) CCl4
(iv) NaCl
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (iii) and (iv) (d) (i) and (iii)

10. Which one of the following properties is not generally exhibited by ionic compounds?
(a) Solubility in water
(b) Electrical conductivity in solid state
(c) High melting and boiling points
(d) Electrical conductivity in molten state

11. Which of the following metals exist in their native state in nature?
(i) Cu
(ii) Au
(iii) Zn
(iv) Ag
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iv) (d) (iii) and (iv)

12. Metals are refined by using different methods. Which of the following metals are refined by electrolytic refining?
(i) Au
(ii) Cu
(iii) Na
(iv) K
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)

13. Silver articles become black on prolonged exposure to air. This is
due to the formation of
(a) Ag 3N
(b) Ag 2O
(c) Ag 2S
(d) Ag2S and Ag3N

14. Galvanisation is a method of protecting iron from rusting by coating with a thin layer of
(a) Gallium
(b) Aluminium
(c) Zinc
(d) Silver

15. Stainless steel is very useful material for our life. In stainless steel, iron is mixed with
(a) Ni and Cr
(b) Cu and Cr
(c) Ni and Cu
(d) Cu and Au

16. If copper is kept open in air, it slowly loses its shining brown surface and gains a green coating. It is due to the formation of
(a) CuSO4
(b) CuCO3
(c) Cu(NO3)2
(d) CuO

17. Generally, metals are solid in nature. Which one of the following metals is found in liquid state at room temperature?
(a) Na
(b) Fe
(c) Cr
(d) Hg

18. Which of the following metals are obtained by electrolysis of their chlorides in molten state ?
(i) Na
(ii) Ca
(iii) Fe
(iv) Cu
(a) (i) and (iv) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iii) (d) (i) and (ii)

19. Generally, non-metals are not lustrous. Which of the following nonmetal
is lustrous?
(a) Sulphur
(b) Oxygen
(c) Nitrogen
(d) Iodine

20. Which one of the following four metals would be displaced from the solution of its salts by other three metals?
(a) Mg
(b) Ag
(c) Zn
(d) Cu

21. 2 mL each of concentrated HCl, HNO3 and a mixture of concentrated HCl and concentrated HNO3 in the ratio of 3 : 1 were taken in test tubes labelled as A, B and C. A small piece of metal was put in each test tube. No change occurred in test tubes A and B but the metal got dissolved in test tube C respectively. The metal could be
(a) Al
(b) Au
(c) Cu
(d) Pt

22. An alloy is
(a) an element
(b) a compound
(c) a homogeneous mixture
(d) a heterogeneous mixture

23. An electrolytic cell consists of
(i) positively charged cathode
(ii) negatively charged anode
(iii) positively charged anode
(iv) negatively charged cathode
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and (iii) (d) (ii) ad (iv)

24. During electrolytic refining of zinc, it gets
(a) deposited on cathode
(b) deposited on anode
(c) deposited on cathode as well as anode
(d) remains in the solution

25. An element A is soft and can be cut with a knife. This is very reactive to air and cannot be kept open in air. It reacts vigorously with water. Identify the element from the following
(a) Mg
(b) Na
(c) P
(d) Ca

26. Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of a metal with a metal or nonmetal. Which among the following alloys contain non-metal as one of its constituents?
(a) Brass
(b) Bronze
(c) Amalgam
(d) Steel

27. Which among the following statements is incorrect for magnesium metal?
(a) It burns in oxygen with a dazzling white flame
(b) It reacts with cold water to form magnesium oxide and evolves hydrogen gas
(c) It reacts with hot water to form magnesium hydroxide and evolves hydrogen gas
(d) It reacts with steam to form magnesium hydroxide and evolves hydrogen gas

28. Which among the following alloys contain mercury as one of its constituents?
(a) Stainless steel
(b) Alnico
(c) Solder
(d) Zinc amalgam

29. Reaction between X and Y, forms compound Z. X loses electron and Y gains electron. Which of the following properties is not shown by Z?
(a) Has high melting point
(b) Has low melting point
(c) Conducts electricity in molten state
(d) Occurs as solid

30. The electronic configurations of three elements X, Y and Z are X — 2, 8; Y — 2, 8, 7 and Z — 2, 8, 2. Which of the following is correct?
(a) X is a metal
(b) Y is a metal
(c) Z is a non-metal
(d) Y is a non-metal and Z is a metal

31. Although metals form basic oxides, which of the following metals form an amphoteric oxide?
(a) Na
(b) Ca
(c) Al
(d) Cu

32. Generally, non-metals are not conductors of electricity. Which of the following is a good conductor of electricity?
(a) Diamond
(b) Graphite
(c) Sulphur
(d) Fullerene

33. Electrical wires have a coating of an insulting material. The material, generally used is
(a) Sulphur
(b) Graphite
(c) PVC
(d) All can be used

34. Which of the following non-metals is a liquid?
(a) Carbon
(b) Bromine
(c) Phosphorus
(d) Sulphur

35. Which of the following can undergo a chemical reaction?
(a) MgSO4+ Fe
(b) ZnSO4 + Fe
(c) MgSO4+ Pb
(d) CuSO4 + Fe

Short Answer Questions from NCERT Exemplar for class 10

37. Iqbal treated a lustrous, divalent element M with sodium hydroxide. He observed the formation of bubbles in reaction mixture. He made the same observations when this element was treated with hydrochloric acid. Suggest how can he identify the produced gas. Write chemical equations for both the reactions.

38. During extraction of metals, electolytic refining is used to obtain pure metals. (a) Which material will be used as anode and cathode for refining of silver metal by this process? (b) Suggest a suitable electrolyte also. (c) In this electrolytic cell, where do we get pure silver after passing electric current?

39. Why should the metal sulphides and carbonates be converted to metal oxides in the process of extraction of metal from them?

40. Generally, when metals are treated with mineral acids, hydrogen gas is liberated but when metals (except Mn and Mg), treated with HNO3, hydrogen is not liberated, why?

41. Compound X and aluminium are used to join railway tracks. (a) Identify the compound X (b) Name the reaction (c) Write down its reaction.

42. When a metal X is treated with cold water, it gives a basic salt Y with molecular formula XOH (Molecular mass = 40) and liberates a gas Z which easily catches fire. Identify X, Y and Z and also write the reaction involved.

43. A non-metal X exists in two different forms Y and Z. Y is the hardest natural substance, whereas Z is a good conductor of electricity. Identify X, Y and Z.

44. The following reaction takes place when aluminium powder is heated with MnO2
3 MnO2 (s) + 4 Al (s) → 3 Mn (l) + 2 Al 2O3 (l) + Heat
(a) Is aluminium getting reduced? (b) Is MnO2 getting oxidised?


Chapter 4: Carbon and its Compounds

Chapter 5: Periodic Classification of Elements

Chapter 6: Life Processes

Chapter 7: Control and Coordination

Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce?

Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution

Chapter 10: Light – Reflection and Refraction

Chapter 11: The Human Eye and the Colourful World

Chapter 12: Electricity

Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Chapter 14: Sources of Energy

Chapter 15: Our Environment

Chapter 16: Management of Natural Resources


Class 10 NCERT Exemplar Mathematics

Chapter 1: Real Numbers

Chapter 2: Polynomials

Chapter 3: Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Chapter 4: Quadratic Equations

Chapter 5: Arithmetic Progressions

Chapter 6:Triangles

Chapter 7: Coordinate Geometry

Chapter 8: Introduction to Trigonometry and its Applications

Chapter 9: Circles

Chapter 10: Constructions

Chapter 11: Area Related to Circles

Chapter 12: Surface Areas and Volumes

Chapter 13: Statistics and Probability

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