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Exemplar Problems and Solutions for Class 11

This article contains the solutions to NCERT Exemplar for class 11


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. As we go from species to kingdom in a taxonomic hierarchy, the number of common characteristics
a. Will decrease
b. Will increase
c. Remain same
d. May increase or decrease

2. Which of the following ‘suffixes’ used for units of classification in plants indicates a taxonomic category of ‘family’.
a. – Ales
b. – Onae
c. – Aceae
d. – Ae

3. The term ‘systematics’ refers to:
a. Identification and classification of plants and animals
b. Nomenclature and identification of plants and animals
c. Diversity of kinds of organisms and their relationship
d. Different kinds of organisms and their classification

4. Genus represents
a. An individual plant or animal
b. A collection of plants or animals
c. Group of closely related species of plants or animals
d. None of these

5. The taxonomic unit ‘Phylum’ in the classification of animals is equivalent to which hierarchial level in classfication of plants
a. Class
b. Order
c. Division
d. Family

6. Botanical gardens and zoological parks have
a. Collection of endemic living species only
b. Collection of exotic living species only
c. Collection of endemic and exotic living species
d. Collection of only local plants and animals

7. Taxonomic key is one of the taxonomic tools in the identification and classification of plants and animals. It is used in the preparation of
a. Monographs
b. Flora
c. Both a & b
d. None of these

8. All living organisms are linked to one another because
a. They have common genetic material of the same type
b. They share common genetic material but to varying degrees
c. All have common cellular organization
d. All of above

9. Which of the following is a defining characteristic of living organisms?
a. Growth
b. Ability to make sound
c. Reproduction
d. Response to external stimuli

10. Match the following and choose the correct option:
A. Family i. tuberosum
B. Kingdom ii. Polymoniales
C. Order iii. Solanum
D. Species iv. Plantae
E. Genus v. Solanacea
a. i-D, ii-C, iii-E, iv-B, v-A
b. i-E, ii-D, iii-B, iv-A, v-C
c. i-D, ii-E, iii-B, iv-A, v-C
d. i-E, ii-C, iii-B, iv-A, v-D


1. Linnaeus is considered as Father of Taxonomy. Name two other botanists known for their contribution to the field of plant taxonomy?
2. What does ICZN stand for?
3. Couplet in taxonomic key means ________________ .
4. What is a Monograph?
5. Amoeba multiplies by mitotic cell di vision. Is this phenomena growth or reproduction? Explain.
6. Define metabolism.
7. Which is the largest botanical garden in the world? Name a few well known botanical gardens in India.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT Exemplar for class 11

1. A ball of snow when rolled over snow increases in mass, volume and size. Is this comparable to growth as seen in living organisms? Why?

2. In a given habitat we have 20 plant species and 20 animal species. Should we call this as ‘diversity’ or ‘biodiversity’? Justify your answer.

3. International Code of Botanical nomenclature (ICBN) has provided a code for classification of plants. Give hierarchy of units of classification botanists follow while classifying plants and mention different ‘Suffixes’
used for the units.

4. A plant species shows several morphological variations in response to altitudinal gradient. When grown under similar conditions of growth, the morphological variations disappear and all the variants have common morphology. What are these variants called?

5. How do you prepare your own herbarium sheets? What are the different tools you carry with you while collecting plants for the preparation of a herbarium? What information should a preserved plant material on the herbarium sheet provide for taxonomical studies?

6. What is the difference between flora, fauna and vegetation? Eichornia crassipes is called as an exotic species while Rauvolfia serpentina is an endemic species in India. What do these terms exotic and endemic refer to?

7. A plant may have different names in different regions of the country or world. How do botanists solve this problem?

8. Brinjal and potato belong to the same genus Solanum, but to two different species. What defines them as separate species?

9. Properties of cell organelles are not always found in the molecular constituents of cell organelles. Justify.

10. The number and kinds of organism is not constant. How do you explain this statement?

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT Exemplar for class 11

1. What is meant by living? Give any four defining features of life forms.

2. A scientist has come across a plant which he feels is a new species. How will he go about its identification, classification and nomenclature.

3. Brassica Campestris linn
a. Give the common name of the plant.
b. What do the first two parts of the name denote?
c. Why are they written in italics?
d. What is the meaning of linn written at the end of the name?

4. What are taxonomical aids? Give the importance of herbaria and museums. How are Botanical gardens and Zoological parks useful in conserving biodiversity?

5. Define a taxon. What is meant by taxonomic hierarchy. Give a flow diagram from the lowest to highest category for a plant and an animal. What happens to the number of individuals and number of shared characters as we go up the taxonomical hierarchy?

6. A student of taxonomy was puzzled when told by his professor to look for a key to identify a plant. He went to his friend to clarify what ‘Key’ the professor was referring to? What would the friend explain to him?

7. Metabolism is a defining feature of all living organisms without exception. Isolated metabolic reactions in vitro are not living things but surely living reactions. Comment.

8. Do you consider a person in coma-living or dead?

9. What is the similarity and dissimilarity between “whole moong daal” and “broken moong daal” in terms of respiration and growth? Based on these parameters classify them into living or nonliving?

10. Some of the properties of tissues are not the constituents of its cells. Give three examples to support the statement.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS from NCERT Exemplar for class 11

1. All eukaryotic unicellular organisms belong to
a. Monera
b. Protista
c. Fungi
d. Bacteria

2. The five kingdom classification was proposed by
a. R.H. Whittaker
b. C.Linnaeus
c. A. Roxberg
d. Virchow

3. Organisms living in salty areas are called as
a. Methanogens
b. Halophiles
c. Heliophytes
d. Thermoacidophiles

4. Naked cytoplasm, multinucleated and saprophytic are the characteristics of
a. Monera
b. Protista
c. Fungi
d. Slime molds

5. An association between roots of higher plants and fungi is called
a. Lichen
b. Fern
c. Mycorrhiza
d. BGA

6. A dikaryon is formed when
a. Meiosis is arrested
b. The two haploid cells do not fuse immediately
c. Cytoplasm does not fuse
d. None of the above

7. Contagium vivum fluidum was proposed by
a. D.J. Ivanowsky
b. M.W. Beijerinek
c. Stanley
d. Robert Hook

8. Mycobiont and Phycobiont are found in
a. Mycorrhiza
b. Root
c. Lichens
d. BGA
9. Difference between Virus and Viroid is
a. Absence of protein coat in viroid but present in virus
b. Presence of low molecular weight RNA in virus but absent in viroid
c. Both a and b
d. None of the above

10. With respect to fungal sexual cycle, choose the correct sequence of events
a. Karyogamy, Plasmogamy and Meiosis
b. Meiosis, Plasmogamy and Karyogamy
c. Plasmogamy, Karyogamy and Meiosis
d. Meiosis, Karyogamy and Plasmogamy

11. Viruses are non-cellular organisms but replicate themselves once they infect the host cell. To which of the following kingdom do viruses belong to?
a. Monera
b. Protista
c. Fungi
d. None of the above

12. Members of phycomycetes are found in
i. Aquatic habitats
ii. On decaying wood
iii. Moist and damp places
iv. As obligate parasites on plants

Choose from the following options
a. None of the above
b. i and iv
c. ii and iii
d. All of the above


1. What is the principle underlying the use of cyanobacteria in agricultural fields for crop improvement?

2. Suppose you accidentally find an old preserved permanent slide without a label. In your effort to identify it, you place the slide under microscope and observe the following features:-
a. Unicellular
b. Well defined nucleus
c. Biflagellate–one flagellum lying longitudinally and the other transversely. What would you identify it as? Can you name the kingdom it belongs to?

3. How is the five–kingdom classification advantageous over the two kingdom classification?

4. Polluted water bodies have usually a very high abundance of plants like Nostoc and Oscillitoria. Give reasons. 5. Are chemosynthetic bacteria-autotrophic or heterotrophic?

6. The common name of pea is simpler than its botanical (scientific) name Pisum satirum. Why then is the simpler common name not used instead of the complex scientific/ botanical name in biology?

7. A virus is considered as a living organism and an obligate parasite when inside a host cell. But virus is not classified along with bacteria or fungi. What are the characters of virus that are similar to non-living objects?

8. In the five kingdom system of Whittaker, how many kingdoms are eukaryotes?


1. Diatoms are also called as ‘pearls of the ocean’, why? What is diatomaceous earth?

2. There is a myth that immediately after heavy rains in a forest, mushrooms appear in large number and make a very large ring or circle, which may be several metres in diameter. These are called as ‘Fairy rings’. Can you explain this myth of fairy rings in biological terms?

3. Neurospora – an ascomycetes fungus has been used as a biological tool to understand the mechanism of plant genetics much in the same way as Drosophila has been used to study animal genetics. What makes Neurospora so important as a genetic tool?

4. Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria have been clubbed together in Eubacteria of kingdom Monera as per the “Five Kingdom Classification” even though the two are vastly different from each other. Is this grouping of the two types of taxa in the same kingdom justified? If so, why?

5. At a stage of their cycle, ascomycetes fungi produce the fruiting bodies like apothecium, perithecium or  cleistothecium. How are these three types of fruiting bodies different from each other?

6. What observable features in Trypanosoma would make you classify it under kingdom Protista?

7. Fungi are cosmopolitan, write the role of fungi in your daily life.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT Exemplar for class 11

1. Algae are known to reproduce asexually by variety of spores under different environmental conditions. Name these spores and the conditions under which they are produced.

2. Apart from chlorophyll, algae have several other pigments in their chloroplast. What pigments are found in blue-green, red and brown algae that are responsible for their characteristic colours?

3. Make a list of algae and fungi that have commercial value as source of food, chemicals, medicines and fodder.

4. ‘Peat’ is an important source of domestic fuel in several countries. How is ‘peat’ formed in nature?

5. Biological classification is a dynamic and ever evolving phenomenon which keeps changing with our understanding of life forms. Justify the statement taking any two examples.



1. Cyanobacteria are classified under
a. Protista
b. Plantae
c. Monera
d. Algae

2. Fusion of two gametes which are dissimilar in size is termed as
a. Oogamy
b. Isogamy
c. Anisogamy
d. Zoogamy

3. Holdfast, stipe and frond constitutes the plant body in case of
a. Rhodophyceae
b. Chlorophyceae
c. Phaeophyceae
d. All of the above

4. A plant shows thallus level of organization. It shows rhizoids and is haploid. It needs water to complete its life cycle because the male gametes are motile. Identify the group to which it belongs to
a. Pteridophytes
b. Gymnosperms
c. Monocots
d. Bryophytes

5. A Prothallus is
a. A structure in pteridophytes formed before the thallus develops
b. A sporophytic free living structure formed in pteridophytes
c. A gametophyte free living structure formed in pteridophytes
d. A primitive structure formed after fertilization in pteridophytes

6. Plants of this group are diploid and well adapted to extreme conditions. They grow bearing sporophylls in compact structures called cones. The group in reference is
a. Monocots
b. Dicots
c. Pteridophytes
d. Gymnosperms

7. The embryo sac of an Angiosperm is made up of
a. 8 cells
b. 7 cells and 8 nuclei
c. 8 nuclei
d. 7 cells and 7 nuclei

8. If the diploid number of a flowering plant is 36. What would be the chromosome number in its endosperm
a. 36
b. 18
c. 54
d. 72

9. Protonema is
a. Haploid and is found in mosses
b. Diploid and is found in liverworts
c. Diploid and is found in pteridophytes
d. Haploid and is found in pteridophytes

10. The giant Redwood tree (Sequoia sempervirens) is a/an
a. Angiosperm
b. Free fern
c. Pteridophyte
d. Gymnosperm


1. Food is stored as Floridean starch in Rhodophyceae. Mannitol is the reserve food material of which group of algae?

2. Give an example of plants with
a. Haplontic life cycle
b. Diplontic life cycle
c. Haplo- diplontic life cycle

3. The plant body in higher plants is well differentiated and well developed. Roots are the organs used for the purpose of absorption. What is the equivalent of roots in the less developed lower plants?

4. Most algal genera show haplontic life style. Name an alga which is
a. Haplo-diplontic
b. Diplontic

5. In Bryophytes male and female sex organs are called ____________ and __________.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. Why are bryophytes called the amphibians of the plant kingdom?

2. The male and female reproductive organs of several pteridophytes and gymnosperms are comparable to floral structures of angiosperms. Make an attempt to compare the various reproductive parts of pteridophytes and gymnosperms with reproductive structures of angiosperms.

3. Heterospory i.e., formation of two types of spores – microspores and megaspores is a characteristic feature in the life cycle of a few members of pteridophytes and all spermatophytes. Do you think heterospory has
some evolutionary significance in plant kingdom?

4. How far does Selaginella one of the few living members of lycopodiales (pteridophytes) fall short of seed habit.

5. Each plant or group of plants has some phylogenetic significance in relation to evolution : Cycas, one of the few living members of gymnosperms is called as the ‘relic of past’. Can you establish a phylogenetic relationship of Cycas with any other group of plants that justifies the above statement?

6. The heterosporous pteridophytes show certain characteristics, which are precursor to the seed habit in gymnosperms. Explain.

7. Comment on the lifecycle and nature of a fern prothallus.

8. How are the male and female gametophytes of pteridophytes and gymnosperms different from each other?

9. In which plant will you look for mycorrhiza and corolloid roots? Also explain what these terms mean.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. Gametophyte is a dominant phase in the life cycle of a bryophyte. Explain.

2. With the help of a schematic diagram describe the haplo-diptontic life cycle pattern of a plant group.

3. Lichen is usually cited as an example of ‘symbiosis’ in plants where an algal and a fungal species live together for their mutual benefit. Which of the following will happen if algal and fungal partners are separated from
each other?
a. Both will survive and grow normally and independent from each other.
b. Both will die
c. Algal component will survive while the fungal component will die.
d. Fungal component will survive while algal partner will die.
Based on your answer how do you justify this association as symbiosis.

4. Explain why sexual reproduction in angiosperms is said to take place through double fertilization and triple fusion. Also draw a labelled diagram of embryo sac to explain the phenomena.

5. Draw labelled diagrams of
a. Female and male thallus of a liverwort.
b. Gametophyte and sporophyte of Funaria.
c. Alternation of generation in Angiosperm.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. In some animal groups, the body is found divided into compartments with at least some organs/ organ repeated. This characteristic feature is named
a. Segmentation
b. Metamerism
c. Metagenesis
d. Metamorphosis

2. Given below are types of cells present in some animals. Each one is specialized to perform a single specific function except
a. Choanocytes
b. Interstitial cells
c. Gastrodermal cells
d. Nematocytes

3. Which one of the following sets of animals share a four-chambered heart?
a. Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds
b. Crocodiles, Birds, Mammals
c. Crocodiles, Lizards, Turtles
d. Lizards, Mammals, Birds

4. Which of the following pairs of animals has non-glandular skin
a. Snake and Frog
b. Chameleon and Turtle
c. Frog and Pigeon
d. Crocodile and Tiger

5. Birds and mammals share one of the following characteristics as a common feature.
a. Pigmented skin
b. Alimentary canal with some modification
c. Viviparity
d. Warm blooded nature

6. Which one of the following sets of animals belong to a single taxonomic group?
a. Cuttlefish, Jellyfish, Silverfish, Dogfish, Starfish
b. Bat, Pigeon, Butterfly
c. Monkey, Chimpanzee, Man
d. Silkworm, Tapeworm, Earthworm

7. Which one of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Mesoglea is present in between ectoderm and endoderm in Obelia.
b. Radial symmetry is found in Asterias
c. Fasciola is a pseudocoelomate animal
d. Taenia is a triploblastic animal

8. Which one of the following statements is incorrect?
a. In cockroaches and prawns excretion of waste material occurs through malpighian tubules.
b. In ctenophors, locomotion is mediated by comb plates.
c. In Fasciola flame cells take part in excretion
d. Earthworms are hermaphrodites and yet cross fertilization take place among them.

9. Which one of the following is oviparous?
a. Platypus
b. Flying fox (Bat)
c. Elephant
d. Whale

10. Which one of the following is not a poisonous snake?
a. Cobra
b. Viper
c. Python
d. Krait

11. Match the following list of animals with their level of organisation.

Division of Labour Animal
A. Organ level i. Pheritima
B. Cellular agregate level ii. Fasciola
C. Tissue level iii. Spongilla
 D. Organ system level  iv. Obelia

Choose the correct match showing division of labour with animal example.
a. i-B, ii-C, iii-D, and iv-A
b. i-B, ii-D, iii-C, and iv-A
c. i-D, ii-A, iii-B, and iv-C
d. i-A, ii-D, iii-C, and iv-B

12. The body cavity is the cavity present between the body wall and gut wall. In some animals the body cavity is not lined by mesoderm. Such animals are called
a. Acoelomate
b. Pseudocoelomate
c. Coelomate
d. Haemocoelomate

13. Match the column A with column B and choose the correct option

Column A                                              Column B
A. Porifera                                         i. Canal system
B. Aschelminthes                            ii. Water-vascular system
C. Annelida                                      iii. Muscular Pharynx
Comb plates
D. Arthropoda                                 vi. Jointed appendages
E. Echinodermata                          v. Metameres
a. A-ii, B-iii, C-v, D-iv, E-i
b. A-ii, B-v, C-iii, D-iv, E-i
c. A-i, B-iii, C-v, D-iv, E-ii
d. A-i, B-v, C-iii, D-iv, E-ii


1. Identify the phylum in which adults exhibit radial symmetry and larva exhibit bilateral symmetry.
2. What is the importance of pneumatic bones and air sacs in Aves?
3. What is metagenesis? Mention an example which exhibits this phenomenon.
4. What is the role of feathers?
5. Which group of chordates possess sucking and circular mouth without jaws?
6. Give one example each for an animal possessing placoid scales and that with cycloid scales.
7. Mention two modifications in reptiles required for terrestrial mode of life.
8. Mention one example each for animals with a chitinous exoskeleton and those covered by a calcareous shell.
9. What is the role of radula in mollusks?
10. Name the animal, which exhibits the phenomenon of bioluminescence. Mention the phylum to which it belongs.

11. Write one example each of the following in the space provided.
a. Cold blooded animal ________________________
b. Warm blooded animal ________________________
c. Animal possessing dry and cornified skin _______________
d. Dioecious animal _____________________

12. Differentiate between a diplobastic and a triploblastic animal.

13. Give an example of the following
a. Round worm
b. Fish possessing poison sting
c. A limbless reptile/ amphibian
d. An oviparous mammal

14. Provide appropriate technical term in the space provided.
a. Blood-filled cavity in arthropods __________________________.
b. Free-floating form of cnidaria _____________________________.
c. Stinging organ of jelly fishes ______________________________.
d. Lateral appendages in aquatic annelids ___________________.

15. Match the following:
Animals locomotory Organ
a. Octopus i. Limbs
b. Crocodile ii. Comb plates
c. Catla iii. Tentacles
d. Ctenoplana iv. Fins

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. Differentiate between:

a. Open circulatory system and closed circulatory system
b. Oviparous and viviparous characteristic
c. Direct development and Indirect development

2. Sort out the animals on the basis of their symmetry (radial or bilateral) coelenterates, ctenophores, annelids, arthropods, and echinoderms.

3. There has been an increase in the number of chambers in heart during evolution of vertebrates. Give the names of the class of vertebrates having two, three or four-chambered heart.

4. Fill up the blank spaces appropriately

5. Match the following
a. Amphibia                        i. Air bladder
b. Mammals                       ii. Cartilaginous notochord
c. Chondrichthyes             iii. Mammary glands
d. Ostichthyes                    iv. Pneumatic bones
e. Cyclostomata                 v. Dual habitat
f. Aves                                 vi. Sucking and circular mouth without jaws.

6. Endoparasites are found inside the host body. Mention the special structure, possessed by these and which enables them to survive in those conditions.

7. Match the following and write correct choice in space provided Animal Characteristics
a. Pila i. Jointed appendages
b. Cockroach ii. Perching
c. Asterias iii. Water vascular system
d. Torpedo iv. electric organ
e. Parrot v. Presence of shell
f. Dog fish vi. Placoid scales
a. ____________________, b. ____________________, c. ____________________
d. ____________________, e. ____________________, f. ____________________

8. Differentiate between:
a. Open and closed circulatory system
b. Oviparity and viviparity
c. Direct and indirect development
d. Aceolomate and pseudo coelomate
e. Notochord and nerve cord
f. Polyp and medusa

9. Give the characteristic features of the following citing one example of each
a. Chondrichthyes and ostichthyes
b. Urochordata and cephalochordata
10. Mention two similarities between
a. Aves and mammals
b. A frog and crocodile
c. A turtle and pila

11. Name
a. A limbless animal
b. A cold blooded animal
c. A warm blooded animal
d. An animal possessing dry and cornified skin
e. An animal having canal system and spicules
f. An animal with cnidoblasts

12. Give an example for each of the following
a. A viviparous animal
b. A fish possessing a poison sting
c. A fish possessing an electric organ
d. An organ, which regulates buoyancy
e. Animal, which exhibits alternation of generation
f. Oviparous animal with mammary gland

13. Excretory organs of different animals are given below. Choose correctly
and write in the space provided.
Animal Excetory Organ/Unit
a. Balanoglossus i. Metanephridia
b. Leech ii. Nephridia
c. Locust iii. Flame cells
d. Liver fluke iv. absent
e. Sea urchin v. malpighian tubule
f. Pila vi. Proboscis gland
a. ____________________, b. ____________________, c. ____________________
d. ____________________, e. ____________________, f. ____________________

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. Give three major differences between chordates and non-chordates and
draw a schematic sketch of a chordate showing those features.

2. What is the relationship between germinal layers and the formation of
body cavity in case of coelomate, acoelomates and pseudocoetomates?

3. Comment upon the habitats and external features of animals belonging
to class, amphibia and reptilia.

4. Mammals are most adapted among the vertebrates. Elaborate.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. Rearrange the following zones as seen in the root in vertical section and
choose the correct option.
A. Root hair zone
B. Zone of meristems
C. Rootcap zone
D. Zone of maturation
E. Zone of elongation
a. C, B, E, A, D
b. A, B, C, D, E
c. D, E, A, C, B
d. E, D, C, B, A

2. In an inflorescence where flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession, the position of the youngest floral bud shall be
a. Proximal
b. Distal
c. Intercalary
d. Any where

3. The mature seeds of plants such as gram and peas, possess no endosperm, because
a. These plants are not angiosperms
b. There is no double fertilization in them
c. Endosperm is not formed in them
d. Endosperm gets used up by the developing embryo during seed development

4. Roots developed from parts of the plant other than radicle are called
a. Taproots
b. Fibrous roots
c. Adventitious roots
d. Nodular roots

5. Venation is a term used to describe the pattern of arrangment of
a. Floral organs
b. Flower in infloresence
c. Veins and veinlets in a lamina
d. All of them

6. Endosperm, a product of double fertilization in angiosperms is absent in the seeds of
a. Gram
b. Orchids
c. Maize
d. Castor

7. Many pulses of daily use belong to one of the families below (tick the correct answer)
a. Solanaceae
b. Fabaceae
c. Liliaceae
d. Poceae

8. The placenta is attached to the developing seed near the
a. Testa
b. Hilum
c. Micropyle
d. Chalaza

9. Which of the following plants is used to extract the blue dye?
a. Trifolium
b. Indigofera
c. Lupin
d. Cassia

10. Match the followings and choose correct option

Group A Group B
A. Aleurone layer i. without fertilization
B. Parthenocarpic fruit ii. Nutrition
C. Ovule iii. Double fertilization
D. Endosperm iv. Seed

a. A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
b. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii
c. A-iv, B-ii, C-i, D-iii
d. A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii


1. Roots obtain oxygen from air in the soil for respiration. In the absence or deficiency of O2 , root growth is restricted or completely stopped. How do the plants growing in marshlands or swamps obtain their O2
required for root respiration?

2. Write floral formula for a flower which, is bisexual; actinomorphic; sepals five, twisted aestivation, petals five; valvate aestivation; stamens six; ovary tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior, trilocular with axile placentation.

3. In Opuntia the stem is modified into a flattened green structure to perform the function of leaves (i.e., photosynthesis). Cite some other examples of modifications of plant parts for the purpose of photosynthesis.

4. In swampy areas like the Sunderbans in West Bengal, plants bear special kind of roots called _____________.

5. In aquatic plants like Pistia and Eichhornia, leaves and roots are found near _____________.

6. Reticulate and parallel venation are characteristic of _____________ and _____________ respectively.

7. Which parts in ginger and onion are edible?

8. In epigynous flower, ovary is situated below the _____________.

9. Add the missing floral organs of the given floral formula of Fabaceae. br K5 ____________ A(a)G

10. Name the body part modified for food storage in the following
a. Carrot __________________________
b. Colocasia __________________________
c. Sweet potato __________________________
d. Asparagus __________________________
e. Radish __________________________
f. Potato __________________________
g. Dahlia __________________________
h. Turmeric __________________________
i. Gladiolus __________________________
j. Ginger __________________________
k. Portulaca __________________________

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT exemplar for class 11

1. Give two examples of roots that develop from different parts of the angiospermic plant other than the radicle.

2. The essential functions of roots are anchorage and absorption of water and minerals in the terrestrial plant. What functions are associated with the roots of aquatic plants. How are roots of aquatic plants and terrestrial plants different?

3. Draw diagrams of a typical monocot and dicot leaves to show their venation pattern.

4. A typical angiosperm flower consists of four floral parts. Give the names of the floral parts and their arrangements sequentially.

5. Given below are a few floral formulae of some well known plants. Draw floral diagrams from these formulae.
(i) K(5), C(5), A(5), G(2) (ii) Φ K(5)C1+2+(2)A(9)+1G1
(iii) ⊕ K5C5A5+5G(5)

6. Reticulate venation is found in dicot leaves while in monocot leaves venation is of parallel type. Biology being a ‘Science of exceptions’, find out any exception to this generalization.

7. You have heard about several insectivorous plants that feed on insects. Nepenthes or the pitcher plant is one such example, which usually grows in shallow water or in marsh lands. What part of the plant is modified into a ‘pitcher’? How does this modification help the plant for food even though it can photosynthesize like any other green plant?

8. Mango and coconut are ‘drupe’ type of fruits. In mango fleshy mesocarp is edible. What is the edible part of coconut? What does milk of tender coconut represent?

9. How can you differentiate between free central and axile placentation?

10. Tendrils are found in the following plants. Identify whether they are stem tendrils or leaf tendrils.
a. Cucumber
b. Peas
c. Pumpkins
d. Grapevine
e. Watermelons

11. Why is maize grain usually called as a fruit and not a seed?

12. Tendrils of grapevines are homologous to the tendril of pumpkins but are analogous to that of pea. Justify the above statement.

13. Rhizome of ginger is like the roots of other plants that grows underground. Despite this fact ginger is a stem and not a root. Justify.

14. Differentiate between
a. Bract and Bracteole
b. Pulvinus and petiole
c. Pedicel and peduncle
d. Spike and spadix
e. Stamen and staminoid
f. Pollen and pollenium

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS from NCERT Exemplar for class 11

1. Distinguish between families Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae on the basis of gynoecium characteristics (with figures), Also write economic importance of any one of the above family.

2. Describe various stem modifications associated with food storage, climbing and protection.

3. Stolon, offset and rhizome are different forms of stem modifications. How can these modified forms of stem be distinguished from each other?

4. The mode of arrangements of sepals or petals in a floral bud is known as aestivation. Draw the various types of aestivation possible for a typical pentamerous flower.

5. The arrangements of ovules within the ovary is known as placentation. What does the term placenta refer to? Name and draw various types of placentations in the flower as seen in T.S. or V.S..

6. Sunflower is not a flower. Explain.

7. How do you distinguish between hypogeal germination and epigeal germination? What is the role of cotyledon (s) and the endosperm in the germination of seeds?

8. Seeds of some plants germinate immediately after shedding from the plants while in other plants they require a period of rest before germination. The later phenomena is called as dormancy. Give the reasons for seed dormancy and some methods to break it.

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