NCERT Geography book Class 9
Every school student aspires to fetch excellent marks in CBSE Standard 9. However, only those who prepare the best pass their exam with flying colors. In the below article let us go through the topics covered by the NCERT Geography book Class 9.
There are about seven topics covered under geography syllabus of Standard IX. Let us run through each one of them:
Chapter1: India-Size and location
India holds an important position in South Asia and has 7 Union Territories and 28 states. It shares its boundaries with Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Myanmar. The island countries the Maldives and Sri Lanka make the southern border of India.
India lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. India’s mainland extends between 8°4’N and 37°8’N latitudes, and 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) divides India into two almost equal parts.
India is the world’s seventh largest country with a land boundary of about 15,200 km, with the total length of the coastline being 7,516.6 km. It stretches to an area of 3.28 million square km.
The Indian landmass is centrally located between West and East Asia. India’s protruding Deccan Peninsula helped India to establish close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe, South-east and East Asia.
Chapter 2: Physical Features of India
According to the Theory of Plate Tectonics, the seven major and minor plates that form the Earth’s crust keep moving, causing stress and thus leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. The physical features of India can be grouped under the following physiographic divisions:
- The Himalayas are young-fold Mountains which are massive and one of the most rugged mountain barriers of the world. The Himalayas are 2400 km long, 400 km to 150 km wide from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh respectively.
- The Northern Plains are formed by the soil deposited by the rivers flowing all the way from the mountains
- The Peninsular Plateau is the tableland formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwanaland. The Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau are the two broad divisions of the plateau.
- The Indian desert is present in the western margin of the Aravalli range. Luni is the only river flowing through the desert.
- The islands consist of the Lakshadweep islands (in the Arabian Sea) and Andaman and Nicobar islands (in Bay on Bengal)
- The Coastal Plain is divided into Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), Kannada Plain and the Malabar coast from north to the southern part.
Chapter 3: Drainage of India
Drainage systems in India can broadly be classified as the Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers. The Himalayan rivers are fed by the snow melting from the gigantic Himalayas and also seasonal rains, and hence these are perennial rivers i.e. they flow throughout the year.
Peninsular rivers originate in the central highlands of the peninsula, and depend solely on the rains, and, therefore, are seasonal. The four main drainage patterns are Dendritic Drainage, Rectangular Drainage, Trellis Drainage and Radial Drainage.
Chapter 4: Climate of India
Latitude, Pressure and wind system, ocean currents, distance from the sea, and Relief features and altitude are the six major factors affecting the climate of a place.
The retreating monsoon, cold weather season, the hot weather season and the advancing monsoon are the four different patterns due to the change in weather conditions of India.
Chapter 5: Natural vegetation and wildlife
The Environment Atlas of India (June 2001) says the actual forest cover in India in 2001 was only 20.55%.
The major types of vegetation in India are tropical deciduous forests, tropical evergreen forests mountain forests, mangrove forests and tropical thorn and scrubs forests.
India is the home to around 8% of all the species of flora and fauna found in the world.
It is the only country to have both lions and tigers in its forests along with large land animals like the elephant.
In order to preserve natural heritage and world biodiversity, India has come up with 14 biosphere reserves. Out of which, four have been included in the world network of biosphere reserves. They are the Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal, the Sunderban in West Bengal, the Nilgiris and the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Naduspanning across Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
Also, there are 490 wildlife sanctuaries and 89 national parks along with zoological gardens in India to take care of our flora and fauna.
Chapter 6: Population of India
As per World Bank, India’s population as on date stood at 132.42 crores. With a population size of 166 million people, Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state in India. Due to sustained efforts of the government, India’s life expectancy at birth has increased to 64.6 years in 2001.
The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels and malnutrition afflicts a large percentage of our population.
To control and stabilize the growth of population, the National Family Planning Programme has been coined by the government in 1952. The National Population Policy (NPP) was adopted in the year 2000 and provides a policy framework to address the issues of child survival, maternal health, and contraception.
Chapter 7: Disaster management
On the national level, the administration initiates rescue and relief operations depending on the severity of the disaster. At the Central level, the nodal ministries are nominated by the government to manage various types of disasters which help in streamlining rescue operations.
The National calamity management committee, presiding over by the Cabinet Secretary and functioning under the Central Aid Commissioner, also deals with Disaster Management responsibilities.
In addition to these administrative committees, technical support is provided by Central Weather Science Department (for cyclone and earthquake), At the State Level, a committee under the Chief Minister or the Chief Secretary takes care of relief operations. At the district level, the District Magistrate and the District Administration are accountable for executing relief operations. At the village level, the Sarpanch of a village heads the disaster management committee and assists the various organizations working in the field.