Meaning of Non-Testing Techniques in Guidance
Non-testing techniques in guidance refer to those techniques which do not involve a test. Therefore many tests like aptitude test, achievement test, interest inventory, and personality tests are not part of it. Non-testing techniques are also called as non-standardized techniques. Furthermore, these techniques have common usage for individual analysis by counsellors. Also, the employment of these setting is in various settings.
Non-testing techniques in guidance provide a broader and much more subjective approach to data gathering and interpretation. Moreover, the various types of non-testing techniques are the questionnaire, observation, autobiography, anecdotal record, case study, cumulative record, interviews, and checklist. However, the most important among them are the case study, interview, and checklist.
A case study refers to a collection of all available information. Furthermore, this information could be social, physiological, biographical, vocational, and environmental. Moreover, this collection of information is with the aim of explaining a single individual. Most noteworthy, the case study is a comprehensive collection of information. Also, this collection of information takes place through the use of different techniques and tools of data collection. It is certainly the best technique of studying the whole individual. Below are the variables whose collection must be made in the case study:
The physical, socio-economic and cultural environment- First of all, the physical environment includes the neighbourhood and surroundings in which an individual lives. The socio-economic environment consists of the society in which the person grows up and the economic condition. Finally, the cultural environment refers to the ideas, views, and behaviour of those among whom one lives.
Family- Collection of detailed and diverse information regarding one’s family must take place. This certainly helps in understanding the characteristics of the individual under study. There must be a collection of information regarding the educational and occupational status of family members. Others questions regarding the love, harmony, understanding, conflict among family members find their place in the case study.
Personal history- There must be a collection of information regarding the personal history of the individual under study. This information is history of an individual’s physical health, abilities, social development, and attitude.
An interview refers of a conversation with a purpose. The purposes for which interviews take place are fact-finding, introductory, evaluative, and informative in nature. Here an interviewer asks a set of questions to an interviewee to find out the responses. The interview is certainly a very important technique among non-testing techniques. Following are the major types of interviews:
Employment interview- The purpose behind such interviews is to check the suitability of a person for a job. The interviewer talks more than the interviewee.
Fact-finding interviewee- Here the purpose is the collection and verification of facts.
Diagnostic interview- Here the purpose is remediation. Furthermore, here an effort is made by the interviewer to diagnose the problem of the interviewee. Also, interviewer identifies the symptoms and tries to solve the problem.
Counselling interview- The purpose of this interview is to provide a suggestion, insight, or advice to the interviewee. Most noteworthy, the interview begins with the work of information collection, then proceeds to guidance, and ends with a psychological treatment of the problem.
The checklist technique is also a non-testing technique in guidance. The checklist technique involves a series of statements. Furthermore, these statements are positive and negative, that the evaluator answers yes or no. This technique checks if the evaluator shows that behaviour or leaves it unchecked. The checklist system includes statements about the habits in the workplace and the skills of individuals. Workplace habits for individuals may include:
- Reports for work on time on most days.
- Exhibits a pleasant behaviour towards the colleagues.
- Stays at work until important tasks are completed.
- Tends to take criticisms quite personally.
Hence, the first three statements are positive attributes. However, the fourth statement is a negative attribute.