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This article gives you an overview of Our Environment Class 10 below. Everything that we are surrounded by is known as Environment. They continuously interact with its components and tries to adapt themselves to the conditions in their surroundings. In the environment, there are different interactions between animals, plants, soil, water, and other living and non-living things. It consists of:

  • Physical surroundings (air, water, and soil)
  • Inorganic substances (carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, water etc.)
  • Meteorological factors (temperature, weather, rainfall etc.)

Overview of Our Environment Class 10 Syllabus:


  • An ecosystem refers to all the living things and also the non-living things. It is a foundation of the Biosphere and it determines the health of the entire earth system.
  • It is a self-contained system of both living things as well as non-living things and their interdependence in a given habitat.
  • Two major components of Ecosystem are:
  • Biotic Environment (producers, consumers, and decomposers)
  • Producers(Autotrophs): All green plants which are able to synthesize their own food.
  • Consumers(Heterotrophs): organisms which consume other organisms or their products as their food.
  • Herbivores: All plant-eating animals or the one which eats the producers For e.g. deer, rabbit, rat, squirrel, goat, cattle
  • Carnivores: Organisms (animals) which consume other animals. For e.g. snake, wild cat, jackal, frog, some birds, fishes, etc.
  • Omnivores: Organisms which feed on both plants and animals. For e.g. Human beings.
  • Decomposers(Saprotrophs): Organisms which feed on the dead bodies of plants and animals. For e.g.: Bacteria and Fungi.
  • Abiotic Environment (Physical environment, Inorganic substances, Climatic factors)
  • Physical Environment (Soil, water and air)
  • Inorganic substances (carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, water etc.)
  • Climatic factors (light, temperature, pressure etc.)

Food Chains and Webs

  • The phenomenon or the process in which one organism consumes another organism to transfer food energy is called food chain.
  • It is a way which is simply represented to show the transfer of energy from the sun to different biotic components of an ecosystem.

A simple food chain can be shown as follows:

Producer → Primary Consumer → Secondary Consumer
  • A food chain is unidirectional as the flow of energy is one-sided and flows in only one direction.
  • Simple food chain operating in a grassland or forest:

     Grass           →                 Deer                →                     Lion

 (Producer)             (Herbivore)                             (Carnivore)

  • The various steps at which the food/energy is transferred is known as the trophic level.
  • A network of food web which establishes a network of the relationship between various species is known as Food Web.

Ten Percent Law

  • This law states that only ten percent of the energy entering a particular trophic level is stored and the remaining is lost due to the transfer of energy
  • The energy available at each successive trophic level is only 10 percent of the previous level E.g., Sun energy 1000 J Plant 10 J Dear 1 J Lion.

Ozone Layer

  • It is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen and is represented by O
  • Ozone is a poisonous gas but it helps in providing a shield to the Earth’s surface from Ultraviolet (UV) rays from sun.
  • Depletion of Ozone Layer:
  • Ozone layer gets depleted due to use of chemicals like aerosol, spray, propellants like chlorofluorocarbons.
  • Depletion of Ozone layer causes skin cancer and severe damages to plants.

Steps to reduce ozone depletion

Ozone layer provides a shield which protects our earth from various damages. However, depletion in the layer is leading to dangerous and deadly diseases like Skin Cancer, cataract and even the destruction of the crops. In order to protect the environment following steps should be taken:

  • Bann in the usage of nitrogen oxide.
  • Avoid usage of pesticides
  • Usage of environmental-friendly products.
  • Avoid cutting down of trees

Biodegradable Wastes

  • Biodegradable substances refer to the substances which can be broken down or can be decomposed by biological means into the raw materials of nature and disappear into the Environment.
  • These wastes are broken down naturally by microbial actions, for e.g.: Food refuse, tree leaves urine and faecal matter, sewage agricultural residue, paper, wood, cloth, cow-dung, etc.
  • They are non-poisonous and are not harmful to the environment.

Non-Biodegradable Wastes

  • Non-Biodegradable substances refer to the substances which cannot be broken down by biological process. These substances may be in solid, liquid or gaseous form.
  • These wastes pollute the environment even in small quantity.
  • Dumping of these wastes leads to infertile soil and subsequently reduces the crop yield on the field.

Modes of Waste Disposals

  • Disposal of waste is significantly needed; therefore, it must be done scientifically.
  • There are different techniques for the disposal of wastes which completely depends on the type of waste.
  • The solid wastes are buried in urban areas as landfills. All solid wastes like plastics, metals, papers are biodegradable and hence they can be recycled and reused.
  • Wastes coming out of industries and factories are treated in special plants and the valuable waste out of them are recycled.
  • Domestic wastes like vegetable peels, human wastes are used to manufacture manure for plants, including trees after compositing.
  • Radioactive wastes are thrown and dumped in faraway ocean basins which are far away from human habitats.
  • Waste coming out of industries, which included metals can be melted and remolded into solid metal again.
  • Incineration or burning at very high temperature also reduces the huge volume of wastes.
  • Biodegradable wastes can be used to prepare biogas and manure which is environment-friendly and even cost-effective, it cost much lesser than other fuels like coal and even fertilizers.


Everything surrounding us is the environment. It includes physical surrounding, inorganic substances, meteorological factors. The article talks about ecosystems and two types of ecosystems that is the biotic environment and abiotic environment. We have talked briefly about the food chain and ten percent law. We have listed in detail about the ozone layer and how we have destroyed it. Also, means to curb ozone layer depletion.

The summary above will help you learn Our Environment Class 10 more efficiently. To know more about the different types of environmental pollution and their harmful effects, visit here.

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