Physical Education is a combination of understanding of theoretical knowledge to be applied in performing various games & sports and this subject has been included within class 12th course structure as an optional subject. Being an easy subject to understand as compared to other core subjects makes students score better within the exam. So, it is equally important to focus on Physical education class 12th as well. Here is detailed information about Physical education class 12th subject which will help you in your preparation.

Physical Education Class 12th: Latest CBSE Syllabus

Physical education class 12th has been divided into two parts i.e. theoretical and practical. Students need to pass both the theoretical and practical exam in order to pass the subject.

The theoretical exam will be of 70 marks maximum with 26 questions in total. There will be 11 questions of 1 mark each, 8 questions of 3 mark each and 7 questions of 5 mark each.

Syllabus for the theoretical exam of Physical education class 12th:

Physical education class 12th Chapter 1: Planning in Sports

* Meaning and Objectives of Planning
* Various Committees and their Responsibilities
* Tournament – Knock-Out, League or Round Robin and Combination.
* Procedure to Draw Fixture – Knock-Out (Bye and Seeding) and League (Staircase and Cyclic)
* Intramural and Extramural-Meaning, Objectives & its Significance.
* Specific Sports Programme (Sports Day, Health Run, Run for Fun, Run for Specific Cause & Run for Unity).

Physical education class 12th Chapter 2: Adventure Sports and Leadership Training

* Meaning and objectives of adventure sports.
* Types of activities – Camping, Rock climbing, Trekking, River rafting, Mountaineering.
* Material requirement and safety measures.
* Identification and use of Natural Resources.
* Conservation of surrounding.
* Creating leaders through physical education.

Physical education class 12th Chapter 3: Sports and Nutrition

* Balanced Diet and Nutrition: Macro and Micro Nutrients.
* Nutritive and Non-nutritive components of the diet.
* Eating disorders – Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia.
* Effects or Diet on performance.
* Eating for weight control – A healthy weight, the Pitfalls of dieting, Food Intolerance and Food Myths.
* Sports Nutrition (Fluid & Meal in taking, pre, during and post competition).

Physical education class 12th Chapter 4: Postures

* Concept of correct postures – standing and sitting
* Advantages of correct posture.
* Causes of Bad posture
* Common postural Deformities – Knock Knee; Flat foot; Round shoulders; Lordosis, kyphosis, Bow Legs, and Scoliosis.
* Physical activities as corrective measures.

Physical education class 12th Chapter 5: Children and Sports

* Motor development in children
* Factors affecting Motor development
* Physical and physiological benefits of exercise on children.
* Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight Training and Food supplement for children.
* Activities and Quality of Life.

Physical education class 12th Chapter 6: Women and Sports

* Sports participation of women in India.
* Special consideration (menarche, Menstrual Dysfunction, Pregnancy, Menopause)
* Female Athletes Triad (Anaemia, Osteoporosis & Amenorrhoea)
* Psychological Aspects of Women Athlete
* Sociological Aspects of Sports Participation
* Ideology

Chapter 7: Test and Measurement in Sports

* Measurement of Muscular strength Kraus weber test
* Motor Fitness test – AAHPER
* Measurement of Cardio-Vascular Fitness-Harward Step Test/Rock Port test.
* Measurement of flexibility-Sit & Reach Test

Physical education class 12th Chapter 8: Physiology and Sports

* Gender differences in physical & physiological parameters.
* Physiological factors determining the component of physical fitness.
* Effect of exercises on the cardiovascular system.
* Effect of exercises on the respiratory system.
* Effect of exercises on the Muscular system.
* Physiological changes due to aging
* Role of physical activity maintaining functional fitness in aged population

Physical education class 12th Chapter 9: Sports Medicine

*Concept & definition
*Aims & scope of Sports medicine
*Impact of surfaces & environment on Athletes
*Sports Injuries – Classification, causes & preventive measures
*Management of Injuries.
*Soft Tissue Injuries (Abrasion Contusion, Laceration, Incision, Sprain & strain)
*Bone & joint Injuries(Dislocation, Fracture: Stress fracture, Green Stick, Comminuted, Transverse & Oblique & impacted)

Physical education class 12th Chapter 10: Biomechanics and Sports

* Projectile & Factors affecting projectile trajectory
* Angular & Linear movements.
* Introduction to work, Power and Energy.
* Friction
* Mechanical Analysis of walking and Running

Physical education class 12th Chapter 11: Psychology and Sports

* Understanding Stress – Meaning, definitions, types, effects & management
* Anxiety – Meaning, Definitions, effect & management
* Coping strategies – Problem-focused and emotional focused
* Personality – Meaning, definitions its dimensions and types, Role of sports in personality development.
* Motivation – meaning its types & techniques.
* Self-esteem & body image
* Psychological benefits of exercise.

Physical education class 12th Chapter 12: Training in Sports

* Strength – Definition, Types, and methods of improving strength-isometric, isotonic and isokinetic.
* Endurance – Definition, types, and methods of developing endurance continuous training, interval training, and fartlek training.
* Speed- Definition, types, and methods of developing speed-Acceleration run and pace run.
* Flexibility – Definition, types, and methods to improve flexibility.
* Coordinative Abilities – Definition and types.

Practical exam of Physical education class 12th will be of 30 marks maximum.

Syllabus for the Physical education class 12th practical exam:

Physical Fitness AAHPER 10 Marks
Skills of anyone Team Game of choice from the given list (Athletics, Basketball, Football, Handball, Hockey, Kho Kho, Rifle Shooting, Unified Basketball
(DifferentlyAbled Children) & Volleyball)
10 Marks
Viva 05 Marks
Record File Practical-1: Modified AAHPER administration for all items.

Practical-2: Conduct Barrow 3 Item Test on 10 students.

Practical-3: Procedure for Asanas, Benefits & Contraindication for any two Asanas each lifestyle disease.

Practical-4: Procedure for administering Senior Citizen Fitness Test for 5 elderly family
members.

Practical-5: Anyone game of your choice out of the list above. Labelled diagram of field &
equipment Rules,
Terminologies & Skills.

05 Marks

Physical Education Class 12th: Reference Books

Theory:

1. Physical Education & Health: Friends Publication, New Delhi, 2000
2. Physical and Health Education: Ashok Book Depot, Delhi, 2000
3. Introduction to Physical & Health Education: Avichal Publishing Company, Himachal Pradesh, 2000
4. Physical Education & Health: B.R. International Publishers, Delhi, 2000
5. Physical Fitness – How to Develop: Friends Publication, New Delhi, 1992
6. Foundation of Physical Education: Friends Publication, New Delhi, 1994
7. Great Indian Players: Sports Publication, Delhi, 1999

Practical:

1. Practical Guide to Physical Education, Sports, and Health: Friends Publication, New Delhi, 2000
2. New Millennium Physical Education Practical Note Book: B.R. International Publishers, Delhi
3. Nikhil Physical Education Practical Note Book: Nikhil Publications, Patna
4. New Style Physical Education & Games Practical Note Book: Ashoka Book Depot, Delhi

Physical Education Class 12th: NCERT Chapter Wise Short Notes

Chapter 1: Planning in Sports

Planning is a way to systematize, direct and organize the events or competitions and extract the advantage and benefit of the available resources. “Planning is the process of making a sequence of work for a future line of action”.

Tournament: A series of sports competitions, in which, a team finally wins and rest of the participating lose the matches. It depends on various factors i.e. – No. of participating teams, availability of grounds and equipment, No. of days and funds.
Importance of tournament
-The sportsman learns the discipline by playing tournaments.
-The sportsman meets another sportsman at a single platform.
-He learns ethical values such as honesty, fair play, respect for others.
– Tournaments provide recreation to all, i.e. organizers, spectators, students.
Types of Tournament
A. Knock out: In this type of tournament, the team once defeated, gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams contest
in the next rounds. Opportunities are given to the winning players/teams.

B. League: In single league tournament all participating teams compete once, with each other, whereas in the double league, each team plays with every as in the double league, each team plays with every other team twice, without any consideration of victory or defeat.

C. Combination Tournaments: Combination tournaments are organized in a group or zonal matches. Whenever there is a large number of teams, combination tournaments facilitate the Physical Education Teachers, job. It gives them elbow room to try out new experiments.
There are mainly four types of combination tournaments:
(a) Knock out cum knock out
(b) League cum league
(c) Knock out Cum league
(d) League cum knock out

D. Challenge Tournament: This type of tournament comes handy when there are one to one contests or there are two players on each side. One player challenges the other and the other player accepts the challenge. Games in which such tournaments are held are – Boxing, Tennis, Table Tennis, Badminton etc. Fixtures in such tournaments are decided according to (a) Ladder Method (b)Physical method (c) Cobweb Method.

Specific Sports Programme
Sports and games programmes are arranged in the world as well as in our country to promote the games and sports for a specific cause. Every country in the world has some or other cause for promoting specific sports programmes. The programmes motivate and create the feeling to take part in these sports programmes. People become health-conscious and try to remain fit and stay healthy for as long as possible. These specific sports programmes are usually organized by the federations, state government, NGO etc. to create health consciousness among the people and take part in health-related sports programmes.

Chapter 2: Adventure Sports and Leadership Training

Meaning: Adventure sports are such type of sports, which involve extraordinary speed, height, physical exertion, and surprising stunts.

Types of Activities
1. Camping:- Camping means going away temporarily to a place having temporary accommodation. It is like going away from home to a new home (camp) with limited facilities. There are various types of camping such as scout camp. N.C.C. camp N.S.S. camp. Sports camp. adventure camp and social camp etc.
2. Rock Climbing: Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across a natural rock or artificial rock walls. In rock climbing, the objective or goal of a climber is to reach the endpoint or summit of a pre-decided route without falling. There are different types of climbing such as Aid climbing free-climbing, trad or traditional climbing, Sports climbing, top rope climbing, free soloing and bouldering.
3. Trekking: Trekking means going on a long and difficult journey, especially on foot. Its course often includes journey over mountainous
regions and woods.
Types of trekking:
a) Easy trekking
b) Moderates trekking
c) Strenuous trekking
d) Difficult trekking
4. River Rafting: River rafting is another adventure sport. It is a river journey undertaken on a raft or boat made of inflatable material. The difficulty of river rafting is from grade I to VI.
5.Mountaineering:- Mountaineering is another type of adventurous sports prevailing all over the world. It is one of the finest outdoor opportunities available to the lovers of high places. Mountaineering is an adventurous sport that combines climbing and hiking up mountains or mountain terrains.

Identification and Use of Natural Resources

Natural Resources:- Our natural resources are materials that sustain life on the earth such as air, water minerals, and other raw materials.
a) Renewable Resources:- Renewable resources are those natural resources which are filled again naturally such as sunlight. Air and wind etc.
b) Non-renewable Resources:- Non Renewable resources are those natural resources which are either formed very slowly or are not formed naturally in the environment.

Conservation of Surrounding or Environment
“Environment conservation refers to the practice of protecting the environment, On an individual, Governmental levels.”
Conservation of surrounding or environment simply implies the sustainable use, as well as management of natural resources such as wildlife water, air, energy and earth deposits, means everything the everything which surrounds us. The aim of conversation of the environment is the balanced and appropriate use of Natural resources so that neither the Environment is affected nor the coming generation is deprived of them.

Chapter 3: Sports and Nutrition

Balanced Diet:- A complete food, a diet contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for proper growth & maintenance of the body.
Nutrition:- It is the process of obtaining & consuming food or breaking down food & substances taken in by the mouth to use for energy in the body.
Nutrients:- The energic food in our diet consists of various types of essential chemicals for our body termed as nutrients e.g. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins & minerals.

Eating Disorders – (i) Anorexia Nervosa & Bulimia.
A) Anorexia Nervosa – It is a serious & potentially life-threatening mental illness. The eating disorder is characterized by self-starvation & excessive weight loss. It is caused by genetic predisposition & a combination of environmental, social & cultural factors.
B) Bulimia Nervosa:- It in eating Disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating followed by compensatory behaviour such as purging or consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time followed by frantic efforts to avoid gaining weight. By self-induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, enemas or diuretics or excessive exercise.

Food Myth/ Dieting Myths:
(i) Myth:- Low fat or no fat diet are good.
Fact:- Body needs fats for energy, tissue repair and to transport vitamin A.D, E.K. Just cut down on salivated fat eating unsaturated fats.
(ii) Myth:- Dieting or Fasting may lose weight.
Fact:- it may be true in short term but ultimately it hinder weight loss. Loosing over the long-term burns off fat whereas crash dieting or fasting not only removes fat but who leans muscles.
(iii) Myth:- Food is eaten late night is more fattening.
Fact:- it doesn’t make much change.
(iv) Myth:- Low-fat milk has less calcium than full-fat milk.
Fact:- Skimmed and semi-skimmed actually have more calcium because it is in watery part and not in the creamy part of milk.
(v) Myth:- Vegetarian cannot build muscles.
Fact:- Vegetarian can build muscles as meat eaters by getting their proteins from vegetables such as cheese, nuts, pulses etc.
(vi) Myth :- Healthy food is expensive.
Fact:- Tinned, stored, packed food is expensive, whereas local & seasonal food is inexpensive.

Chapter 4: Postures

Definition: Good or correct posture is one in which the body is so balanced as to produce the least fatigue.

Advantages of Correct posture :

i) Good physical Appearance
ii) Physical Fitness
iii) Lessen the Fatigue
iv) Improves Appetite
v) Good body balance
vi) Grace & Efficiency of movement
vii) Reduce postural Deformities
viii) Prevent Disorders & Diseases
ix) Psychological Balance
x) Improves confidence
xi) Change in mental attitude
xii) Social Value
xiii) Economic Value

Common Postural Deformities:

A. Kyphosis – It causes hamper back of body, Shoulders come forward and neck drops forward – It is also called round upper back – Kyphotic Spin

B. Round Shoulders:- It is the postural defect in which shoulders are projected forward.
Corrective Measures –
(i) Chakra Asanas
(ii) Dhanur Asanas
(iii) Bhujang Asana
(iv) Ushtt Asanas
(v) Backward Bending
(vi) use a pillow and sleep straight
(vii) Holding the horizontal bar regularly for sometimes.

C. Lordosis – Inward curvature of the spine, the abdomen is ahead of body and shoulder comes outward and sideward, body weight shifted backward.
Corrective measures –
Forward bending Asanas.
(i) Paschimotan Asanas
(ii) Halasanas
(iii) Forward Bending
(iv) Alternate toe touching
(v) Stoop walking (long stride walking)
(vi) Prone Position(lying face downward)

D. Scoliosis – It is problem of the spine in which vertebral column bends to sideward.
Corrective measures.
(i) Ardh Chakra Asanas
(ii) Trikon Asanas
(iii) Tarr Asanas
(iv) Chin – Ups

E. Knock Knee – In this thigh bend inward and knees strike each other while walking & running.
Corrective measures
(a) Vriksh Asanas
(b) Akar Dhanur Asanas
(c) Padma Asanas
(d) Pillow walking
(e) Outward walking
(f) Horse Riding
(g) Walking calipers

F. Bow Legs. This is the defect of legs in which legs bend outward. The space between knees widens up and legs take curve shape.
Corrective measures :
(a) Ardh Chakra Asana.
(b) Garud Asana.
(c) Ardh Matsyendra Asana
(d) Walking inward
(e) Walk on bend toe of the feet

G. Flat foot: In this default of feet, a person gives a complete print of their foot sole over the plane surface. In flat food, the inner curve of foot bulges more than normal.
Correct measures :
(a) Tarr Asanas
(b) Walking on sand
(c) Regular running
(d) Good quality shoes.
(e) Pressure over foot
(f) Writing with foot

Chapter 6: Women and Sports

Sports participation of women means women participation in
the field of sports and games.

 Special Consideration

Menarche: It is the first menstrual bleeding and is a central event of female puberty.

Menstrual Dysfunction: It is a disorder or irregularity of women’s menstrual cycle. In other words “abnormal Bleeding” during the menstrual cycle.

Pregnancy: It is the 9 months term when women need to care and nurture the growing fetus till birth.

Menopause: Menopause is the time when a woman stops having menses or the end of menstrual periods. The menopause leads to hormonal changes in the women.

Chapter 7: Test and Measurement in Sports

Measurement:- Measurement refers to the process of administrating a test to obtain a quantitative data. It can also be said that the measurement aids evaluation process in which various tools and techniques are used in the collection of data. Measurement is a process by which the level of performance, fitness, ability, knowledge, personality, and skills are measured with the help of various standard tests.

Importance of Test & Measurement in Sports:
1. Selection of Athlete: On the basis of skill testing Evaluation of measurements.
2. Individual Game Classification of athletes:- Classification based on gender. age. body, weight, height, interest and physical fitness.
3. To study the Development of Athlete:- Development of athlete with respect to their neuromuscular, social, interpretive, emotional development etc.
4. Individually Focused Training Programme:- Based on individual’s weakness & strength.
5. The motivation of an Athlete:- Measurements & evaluation process creates interest in the training.
6. To predict in advance the performance potentials:- Through measurements & evaluation procedure the future performance can be predicted.
7. To prepare Norms & Standards: All types of standards involve testing & measurements as an essential tool. Norms are set by testing large no. of individuals of an area.
8. To measure current Fitness Status:- Record of past & present health status.
9. To conduct research: Mandatory part to conduct research in the field of physical education sports & health promotion.
10. To Achieve Objective & Goals: Coaching & training is done with keeping a fixed target at a given time.

Kraus-Weber (K-W) Test:

Dr. Hans Kraus and Dr. Sonja Weber developed the Kraus-Weber Minimum Test in the 1950’s. The six-item medical fitness test measures the strength and flexibility of key posture (core) muscles. The test consists of five strength challenges and one general flexibility procedure. The Kraus-Weber Tests do not require sophisticated equipment and are easy to administer.

Motor Fitness Test AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation):

1. Pull-ups for boys & flexed arm hand for girls.
2. Flexed – let sit-ups
3. Shuttle run
4. Standing long jump
5. 50 yards dash
6. 600 yards run

Rikli & Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test:
The senior fitness test was developed as part of the lifespan, wellness programme at Fullerton University. By Dr. Roberta Rikli and Dr. Jessie Jones. As such, the test is sometimes known as the Fullerton functional test. It is a simple easy to use the battery.

Chapter 8: Physiology and Sports

The physiological factor determining components of physical fitness:- strength, speed, endurance, flexibility and coordinative abilities are the main factors of physical fitness.

Effect of Exercise on Cardio-Vascular System:
The cardiovascular system means to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body parts to Produce energy & remove waste material from it.

Effects of Exercise:

Immediate effects                                  Long-term Effects
– Increase heart rate                            – Decrease in basic heart rate
– Increase breathing rate                    – Increase the efficiency of heart rate
– Increase blood flow in the body     – Increase the heart size
– Increase blood pressure                   – Increase cardiac output
– Increase cardiac output                    – Increase no of capillaries
– Increase in stroke volume                – More effective blood distribution
– Increase blood volume
– Decrease cholesterol Level
– Fast recovery period
– Delay fatigue
– Increase in stroke volume

Effects of exercise on Muscular System:

-Change in shape and size of muscle
– Muscle hypertrophy skeletal
– More energy supply to muscle
– Reaction time
– Capillarization
– Reduction in fat
– Muscular endurance
– Posture
– Controls extra fat
– Delays fatigue
– Increase food storage
– Strength and speed

Effects of Exercise on Respiratory System:

-Improve tidal volume
– Improve vital capacity
– Faster recovery rate
– Improve gas exchange capacity
– Improve maximum oxygen intake.

Chapter 9: Sports Medicine

It is a practice of medicine in the area of health and fitness to diagnose, treat and prevent injuries resulting from sports activities.

The scope of Sports Medicine:
— Athlete’s nutrition
— Prevention of accidents in sports
— New methods of detecting doping.
— Methods of prediction of sports talent
— Sports & society
— Scientific promotion of sports & games
— Playgrounds
— Psychological aspects
— Specific fitness
— Human anatomy & physiology
— Sports & first aid
— Sports injury rehabilitation
— Female & sports
— Study of optional load for different ages
— Swimming pool
— Research

How to prevent sports injuries?
* Warming up, stretching and cooling down.
* Undertaking training prior to competition to ensure readiness to play.
* Including appropriate speed work in training programme so muscles are capable of sustaining high acceleration forces.
* Including appropriate stretching and strengthening exercises in weekly training programs.
* Gradually increasing the intensity and duration of training.
* Maintaining high levels of cardiovascular fitness and muscle endurance to prevent fatigue.
* Allowing adequate recovery time between workouts or training sessions.
* Wearing protective equipment, such as shin guards. Mouth guards and helmets.
* Pre participation – medical checkup.
* Ensuring the playing surface and the sporting environment.

First aid
1. Don’t delay medical care: Get medical help immediately
2. Don’t move the joint. Until you receive help splint the affected joint into this fixed position. Don’t try to move a dislocated joint or force it back into place. This can damage the joint and its surrounding muscles, ligaments, nerves or blood vessels.
3. Put ice on the injured joint. This can help reduce swelling by controlling internal bleeding and the build-up of fluids in and around the injured.

Chapter 10: Biomechanics and Sports

It is a branch of science which deals with the forces related to the body movement.
* Biomechanics is derived from Greek words, Bio & mechanics “Bio” refers to life or living things & “mechanics” refer to the field of physics or the forces that action bodies in motions.
* Biomechanics is defined as the systematic study of mechanics of body joints.
* According to Wikipedia “Biomechanics is the study of the structure & function of biological systems of living beings.”

Need & importance of Biomechanics in sports:
I. Improve performance in sports
II. Improvements in techniques
III. Development of improved sports equipment
IV. Improve in training techniques
V. Prevent sports injuries.
VI. Helps in understanding human body
VII. Knowledge of safety principles
VIII. Helps in research works
IX. Creates confidence in players
X. Helps in maintaining a healthy body.

Friction
* Type of Friction
* Coefficient of Friction
* Application of Friction in the field of sport

Mechanical Analysis of walking

A. Stance phase:
i) Heel strike
ii) Early flat foot
iii) Late flat foot
iv) Heel rise
v) Toe off

B. Swing phase

Running

A. Stance phase:
i) Initial contact/float stage / Braking
ii) Absorption stage
iii) Midstance stage
iv) Propulsive stage

B. Swing Phase

C. Upper body & Arm Mechanics in running

Chapter 11: Psychology and Sports

Stress consists of bodily changes product by physiological, psychological condition that tends to upset the homeostatic balance.

Anxiety is a personal feeling of apprehension accompanied by an increased level of Physiological arousal there are some anxiety management techniques which help to deal with a threat.

Motivation is the general level of arousal to action in an individual.

Dimensions of Personality:

1.Physical Dimension:- Personality is the physical appearance of an individual. If an individual has good appearance long height, proper shape body, strong muscles will be counted as a good personality.
2. Mental Dimension:- An individual as good mental ability then only his personality will be counted as good personality e.g. there are many intellectual persons whose personality is counted as good personality although they do not have good physique they have extraordinary mental & intellectual qualities.
3. Social Dimension:- A good personality is sociable & socializing. The social qualities of character, morality, etiquettes, manners, work ethics, friendliness, good attitude, helpful nature, cooperation, sympathy & kinds etc. qualities or traits & essential for sound personality.

Chapter 12: Training in Sports

Sports performance are to be achieved in sports competition.
Training:- “Preparation for doing some task in proper manner”
When we take part in games and sports we try to perform our best and our performance directly depends upon many factors:- strength, endurance, speed, flexibility and coordination abilities.
Sports training is done for improving these factors and ultimately our performance. “Sports training means planned preparation of sportsmen with the help of various exercises”. A systematical training improves the athlete’s fitness level.

1. Strength: When an individual exerts muscular force against resistance in games and sports, it is called his or her strength.
* Strength, as the amount of force a muscle or muscles group, exert. strength is measured in pounds.

Type of strength – Static & Dynamic strength.
-When an individual performs under the condition of fatigue for a long time, it is called his or her endurance.
-In games and sports when an individual performs & movements quickly, it is called his or her speed.

2. Flexibility is the range of movement of the joints of a sportsperson.

3. The ability of an individual to do various related activities smoothly and efficiently is known as coordinative ability.

This was all about Physical education class 12th. I hope this will help you a lot in the exam.

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