Social Science class 10 Notes & Key Points are given below topic wise.
The Making of a Global World (Social Science Class 10) :
Conquest, Disease, and Trade
- In the 16th century, after European sailors found a sea route to Asia, they discovered America.
- The Indian subcontinent had been known for bustling trade with goods, people, customs, and knowledge. It was a crucial point in their trade network.
- After the discovery of America, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
- Precious metals, particularly silver from mines located in Peru and Mexico enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.
- The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonization of America was underway. The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon but germs of small pax which they carried. America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against such type of diseases
A World Economy Takes Shape
- Abolition of the Corn-law.
- Under pressure from lauded groups, the government restricted the import of food grains.
- After the carn laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced in the country.
- British farmers were unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated.
- As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose.
- Faster industrial growth in Britain led to higher incomes and more food imports.
Bretton Woods Institutions
- To deal with external surpluses and deficits a conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire U.S.A.
- International Monetary fund and World Bank were set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
- The past war international economic system is known as Bretton woods systems.
- This system was based on fixed exchange rates.
- IMF and World Bank are referred as Bretton Woods Twins.
- U.S has an effective right of veto over key IMF and World Bank.
New International Economic Order – NIEO
- Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth of Western economies in 1950’s & 60’s.
- They organized themselves as a group. The group of 77 or G-77 to demand a new international economic order (NIEO).
- It was a system that would give them real control over their natural resources more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries markets.
1. Explain how the Global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonialism of the Americas?
2. Why did the British Government have to take the decision to abolish the corn laws?
3. What do you mean by Bretton Woods Agreement? What was its aim?
4. What is referred to as the G-77 countries? In what way can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of Bretton Woods Twins?
The age of Industrialization (Social Science Class 10):
Protective Tariff – To stop the import of certain goods and to protect the domestic goods a tariff was imposed. This tariff was imposed in order to save the domestic goods from the competition of imported goods and also to save the interest of local producers.
Laissez, Faire – According to the economists, for the fast trade a policy of Laissez Faire should be applied whereby government should neither interfere in trade nor in the industrial production. This policy was introduced by a British economist named Adam Smith.
The policy of Protection – The policy to be applied in order to protect the newly formed industry from stiff competition.
Imperial preference – During the British period, the goods imported from Britain to India be given special rights and facilities.
Chamber of commerce – Chamber of commerce was established in the 19th century in order to take collective decisions on certain important issues concerning trade and commerce. Its first office was set up in Madras.
Nationalist Message – Indian manufacturers advertised the nationalist message very clearly. They said, if you care for the nation then buy products that Indians produce. Advertisement became a vehicle of a nationalist message of Swadeshi.
1. Why did Britain impose protective tariff?
2. Which policy was suggested by the economists to save industry and trade from government interfere?
3. Explain what is meant by proto-industrialization?
4. What was the aim of establishing Chamber of Commerce? Where was it established in India first of all?
5. What is the importance of Advertisement in creating new consumers? How did Indian manufacturers send a Nationalist message through these advertisements?
Print Culture and the Modern World(Social Science Class 10) :
The Print Revolution and its Impact.
- The printing press, a new reading public emerged. Reduced the cost of books, now a reading public came into being.
- Knowledge was transferred orally. Before the age of print books were not only expensive but they could not be produced in sufficient numbers.
- But the transition was not so simple. Books could be read only by the literate and the rates of literacy in most European crematories were very low, Oral culture thus entered print and printed material was orally transmitted. And the hearing public and reading public became intermingled.
Religious Debates and the fear of Print.
- Print created the possibility of the wide circulation of ideas.
- Through the printed message, they could persuade people to think differently and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. This had significance in a different sphere of life.
- Many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed word and the wider circulation of books, could have on people’s minds.
- If that happened the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed, expressed by religious authorities and monarchs, as well as many writers and artists, achievement of religion areas of Martin Luther.
- A new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the reformation. Print culture and the
- Print popularized the ideas of the enlightenment thinkers. Collectively, their writings provided a critical commentary or tradition, superstition, and despotism.
- Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, forms, and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had become aware of the power of reason.
- 1780’s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticised their morality. In the process, it raised questions about the existing social order.
- The print helps the spread of ideas. People did not read just one kind of literature. If they read the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau, They were also exposed to monarchic and church propaganda.
- Print did not directly shape their minds, but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently.
The Nineteenth Century (Women)
- As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century. Large numbers of new readers were especially women.
- Women became important as readers as well as writers. Penny magazines were especially meant for women, as were manuals teaching proper behavior and housekeeping.
- In the nineteenth century, lending libraries in England, lower-middle-class people. Sometimes self-educated working class people wrote for themselves. Women were seen as important readers. Some of the best-known novelists were women: Jane Austin, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot. their writings became important in defining a new type of woman.
1. What was the print revolution?
2. In the eighteenth century, Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism discuss?
3. Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from Europe?
4. Give reason. Martin Luther was in favor of print and spoke out in praise of it?
5. Give reasons, the Roman Catholic Church began keeping an index of prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century.
6. In the nineteenth century in Europe. There was a great increase in women literature? Explain it
The other important topics for studying are :
- Nationalism and Imperialism
- Nationalism in India
- Water Resources
- Resources and Development
- Minerals and Energy Resources
- Manufacturing Industries
- Lifelines of National Economy
- Sectors of the Indian Economy
- Money and Credit
- Globalisation and the Indian Economy
- Consumer Rights
- Power Sharing
- Popular Struggles and Movements
- Political Parties
- Outcomes of Democracy
- Gender Religion and Caste
- Democracy and Diversity
- Challenges to Democracy
Thus the above-mentioned topics are to be studied as per the syllabus of Social Science class 10.
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