1,000,000+ students use Toppr to rank higher in Class 12

All the facts, syllabus and information you need, about excelling in Class 12

What is the term-wise syllabus of class 12?


  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Maths
  1. 01. Electrostatics
    • Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields
    • Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  2. 02. Current Electricity
    • Chapter-3: Current Electricity
  3. 03. Magnetic effect of Current and Magnetism
    • Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnestism
    • Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter
  4. 04. Electromagnetic induction and alternating current
    • Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction
    • Chapter-7: Alternating Current
  5. 05. Electromagnetic waves
    • Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves
  6. 06. Optics
    • Chapter-9: Ray optics and optical instruments
    • Chapter-10: Wave Optics
  7. 07. Dual nature of matter
    • Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  8. 08. Atoms and Nuclei
    • Chapter-12: Atoms
    • Chapter-13: Nuclei
  9. 09. Electronic devices
    • Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics : Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  10. 10 Communication Systems
    • Chapter-15: Communication Systems
  1. 01. Reproduction [14]
    • Reprduction in organisms
    • Sexual reproduction in Flowering plants
    • Human reproduction
    • Reproductive health
  2. 02. Genetics and Evolution [18]
    • Principles of inheritance and variation
    • Molecular basis of inheritance
    • Evolution
  3. 03. Biology and Human Welfare [14]
    • Human health and diseases
    • Strategies for enhancement in Food production
    • Microbes in human welfare
  4. 04. Biotechnology and its applications [10]
    • Biotechnology-principles and its application
    • Biotechnology and its applications
  5. 05. Ecology and Environment [14]
    • Organism and Populations
    • Ecosystem
    • Biodiversity and its conservation
    • Environmental issues
  1. 01. Solid State
  2. 02. Solutions
  3. 03. Electrochemistry
  4. 04. Chemical Kinetics
  5. 05. Surface Chemistry
  6. 06. Isolation of Elements
  7. 07. P-block elements
  8. 08. D and f-block elements
  9. 09. Coordination Compounds
  10. 10. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  11. 11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  12. 12. Aldehydes, Ketons and Carboxylic acids
  1. 13. Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
  2. 14. Biomolecules
  3. 15. Polymers
  4. 16. Chemistry in everyday life
  1. 01. Relations and functions [10]
    • Relations and Functions
    • Inverse trigonometric functions
  2. 02. Algebra [13]
    • Matrices
    • Determinants
  3. 03. Calculus [44]
    • Continuity and Differentiability
    • Application of derivatives
    • Integrals
    • Applications of the integrals
    • Differential equations
  4. 04. Vectors and 3D Geometry [17]
    • Vectors
    • Three-dimensional geometry
  5. 05. Linear Programming [16]
  6. 06. Probability [10]
  • Computer Science
  • English
  1. 01. Unit 1: Object Oriented Programming with Python
  2. 02. Unit 2: Advanced Programming with Python
  3. 03. Unit 3: Database Management System and SQL
  4. 04. Unit 4: Boolean Algebra
  5. 05. Unit 5: Communication Technologies
  1. 01. Reading Comprehension [30]
  2. 02. Writing Skills [30]
  3. 03. Literature and long reading text [40]


  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Computer Science
  1. 01. Two experiments one from each section [8+8 marks]
  2. 02. Practical record [experiments and activities] [6 marks]
  3. 03. Investigatory Project [3 marks]
  4. 04. Viva on experiments, activities and project [5 marks]
  1. 01. One Major Experiment [5 marks]
  2. 02. One Minor Experiment [4 marks]
  3. 03. Slide Preparation [5 marks]
  4. 04. Spotting [7 marks]
  5. 05. Partical Record + Viva Voce [4 marks]
  6. 06. Project Record + Viva Voce [5 marks]
  1. 01. Volumetric Analysis [8 marks]
  2. 02. Salt Analysis [8 marks]
  3. 03. Content Based Experiment [6 marks]
  4. 04. Project work [4 marks]
  5. 05. Class record and viva [4 marks]
  1. 01. Programming in C++ [10 marks]
  2. 02. SQL Commands [05 marks]
  3. 03. Project Work [05 marks]

Question wise split

Type of Question Mark(s) per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 5 5
SA-I 2 5 10
SA-II 3 12 36
VBQ 4 1 4
LA 5 3 15
Total 26 70

Note - 1. Internal Choice : There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in one question of 2 marks weightage , one question of 3 marks weightage and all three questions of 5 marks weightage.

2. The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.

3.The above split of questions is applicable for the subjects of physics, chemistry and biology

What is the exam pattern and grading system for class 12th?

Scheme of Examination

The scheme of the Board Examination will be as follows:

  1. The CBSE board will conduct the examination as per the syllabus prescribed by the Board.
  2. The Examination would be conducted in theory as well as in practicals, depending upon the nature of the subject(s) and the marks/grades allotted shall be as prescribed in the curriculum.
  3. The marks/grades shall be awarded for individual subjects and the aggregate marks shall not be given


  1. Assessment of theory/practical papers in external subjects shall be in numerical scores.In addition to numerical scores, the Board shall indicate grades in the marks sheets issued to the candidates in case of subjects of external examinations.
  2. The qualifying marks in each subject of external examination shall be 33% at Secondary/Senior School Certificate Examinations. However at Senior School Certificate Examination,in a subject involving practical work, a candidate must obtain 33% marks in the theory and 33% marks in the practical separately in addition to 33% marks in aggregate, in order to qualify in that subject.
  3. For awarding the grades, the Board shall put all the passed students in a rank order and will award grades as follows:
    1. A-1 Top 1/8th of the passed candidates
    2. A-2 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    3. B-1 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    4. B-2 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    5. C-1 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    6. C-2 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    7. D-1 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    8. D-2 Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
    9. E Failed candidates

Pass Criteria (Senior School Certificate Examination)

  1. A candidate will be eligible to get the Pass Certificate of the Board, if he/she gets a grade higher than E in all subjects of internal assessment unless he/she is exempted. Failing this, result of the external examination will be withheld but not for a period of more than one year.
  2. In order to be declared as having passed the examination, a candidate shall obtain a grade higher than E (i.e. atleast 33% marks) in all the five subjects of external examination in the main or at the compartmental examinations. The pass marks in each subject of external examination shall be 33%. In case of a subject involving practical work a candidate must obtain 33% marks in theory and 33% marks in practical separately in addition to 33% marks in aggregate in order to qualify in that subject.
  3. No overall division/distinction/aggregate shall be awarded.
  4. In respect of a candidate offering an additional subject, the following norms shall be applied:
    • A language offered as an additional subject may replace a language in the event of a candidate failing in the same provided after replacement the candidate has English/Hindi as one of the languages.
    • An elective subject offered as an additional subject may replace one of the elective subjects offered by the candidate.It may also replace a language provided after replacement the candidate has English/Hindi as one of the languages.
    • Additional language offered at elective level may replace an elective subject provided after replacement, the number of languages offered shall not exceed two.
    • Candidates exempted from one or more subjects of internal examination shall be eligible for appearing in external examination and result shall be declared subject to fulfilment of other conditions laid down in the Pass Criteria.

Eligibility for Compartment in Senior School Certificate Examination

A candidate failing in one of the five subjects of external examination shall be placed in compartment in that subject provided he/she qualifies in all the subjects of internal assessment.

Marks range table:

Marks Range Grade
91-100 A1
81-90 A2
71-80 B1
61-70 B2
51-60 C1
41-50 C2
33-40 D
21-32 E1
0-20 E2

How should I prepare?

Preparing well for the examination in the best manner possible is the key to scoring good marks in the boards. You need to know what to study, how to study, how to manage time and where to look for references. Below is a list of subject wise pointers for your preparations-


  1. Mathematics is a very practical subject. The best way to learn it is by practicing the problems. No matter how clear a method seems to be, there will most definitely be issues when using that method to solve a problem. It is highly recommended that the problems be practised till good confidence is achieved.
  2. Being one of the most dreaded subjects among students, it is important that you spend more time on working out the problems where you are weak. Divide time for each units depending on the total marks from the unit and your level of proficiency in it. Students tend to keep practising the areas where they perform relatively well. Although this does no harm, it is advisable that you spend more time for your weak areas. Besides that, focusing on important topics such as given below will help students definitely-
    1. 1. elementary transformation to find inverse of a square matrix (Exercise 3.4),
    2. 2. properties of determinants (Exercise 4.2),
    3. 3. matrix method (Exercise 4.6),
    4. 4. limit of sum (Exercise 7.8),
    5. 5. properties of definite integrals (exercise 7.11),
    6. 6. application of integrals (chapter 8),
    7. 7. concept of line and plane in 3-D (chapter 11),
    8. 8. linear programming (chapter 12),
    9. 9. Bayes’ theorem (Exercise 13.3) and
    10. 10. maxima/minima application problems (Exercise 6.5)
  3. During the exam. It is important that you utilise the 15 minutes cooling time effectively. Use it to read the question paper carefully. This becomes especially important when it comes to questions of Probability. They can be tricky but at the same time get you marks easily if you concentrate. Attempt the sections that carry more weightage of marks first.


  1. Biology is one of the easy-score subjects in board exams. All you need to do is remember the biological terms, practise diagrams and be thorough with the different processes.Listen carefully at school and make correct notes as this can facilitate in your preparation later during exams. Biology may be a content serious course and can need multiple time readings due to theoretical subject. Using flash cards can be a good memory retention technique.


  1. Practice the derivation for at least 3 times; specifically don’t miss those of electrostatics, magnetism and optics; since they might prove very much precious.
  2. Solve at least 3 sample questions based on the derivation you learned. As solving will provide you an idea on where you are going wrong and how could you improve on them.
  3. Attempt as much conceptual questions on those derivations. This will give you a clearer understanding of the subject.
  4. Find for new questions on the similar context from Previous Year Question paper, Sample paper and other Model test paper.
  5. Always time yourself while answering the sample papers as it will help you manage time during the exam.


  1. Revise the notes prepared by you all through the year. They help to memorise the subject in a systematic way.
  2. Make a note of various formulas and stick them onto a wall or your study table and try to read and memorise these notes every time you pass through them.
  3. Pick the basics of important topics of reasoning importance like the p block elements, the d & f block elements.
  4. Go for the Raoult’s Law, Adsorption isotherm, Nernst Equation, Molar mass determination, Packing fraction etc. as they hold a major importance and are the frequently asked questions.
  5. Solve at least 1 sample questions based on the numerical topics you’ve learnt. As solving will provide you an idea on where you are going wrong and how could you improve on them.
  6. For the Organics; revise few important and famous reactions like the Cannizzaro, Aldol, Hoffmann, Friedel Crafts Reaction, etc.


  1. Pay attention to your grammar especially tenses as english subject is more about how well you express your ideas rather than you mugging up the lessons.

Where should I study from?

  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Maths
  1. 01. NCERT textbook
  2. 02. NCERT Solution by Arihant
  3. 03. Pradeep’s Fundamental Physics
  4. 04. H C Verma
  1. 01. NCERT textbook and the solution book by Arihant
  1. 01. NCERT Textbook
  2. 02. NCERT Solutions by Arihant
  3. 03. Pradeep VS Modern ABC for Chemistry
  1. 01. NCERT Textbook
  2. 02. NCERT Solutions by Arihant
  3. 03. R S Agarwal
  4. 04. R D Sharma

Where can I find previous years’ papers?

It is important that you spend enough time solving the previous year question papers. This will help you better manage time and also give you an idea of the frequently asked questions over the years. Check out the following links to get access to previous years papers.

Where should I ask my doubts?

Asking doubts and clearing them is important while preparing for exams. Toppr brings you a community who has survived the test of time and wants to help out a students like you. Discuss with a community of students and experts.

Which competitive and scholarship exams can I take this year?

The following is the list of competitive exams you can take part in and test your skills:

Engineering exams

  1. JEE Main: JEE-Main exam is for admission to National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), Centrally Funded Technical Institutes (CFTIs) as well as for admission to the dual degree programme of IIEST Shibpur. The exam is conducted mostly during first-second week of April.
  2. JEE Advanced: JEE-Advanced is for admission to Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). Only the students selected in JEE Mains are eligible for appearing in JEE Advanced. Over 200,000 students are selected each year. The exam is conducted during last week of May.
  3. BITSAT: BITS Admission Test or BITSAT is a computer based online exam for admission to Integrated Degree programmes of Birla Institute of Technology and Science at its Pilani and Goa campuses. The online exam generally takes place between 2nd – 3rd week of April.
  4. UPSEE: UPSEE (U.P. STATE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION) is the state level engineering examination of Uttar Pradesh. It is conducted during the 3rd week of April.
  5. EAMCET: Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test, commonly called as EAMCET, is an entrance examination required for admission to some engineering and medical colleges in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India. Many other colleges offering graduation courses like BDS, B.Pharm., BSc., Pharm.D., B.E, B. Tech, etc. require qualification in this exam. The exam is conducted during last week of May.
  6. MHT-CET: The Common Entrance Test is conducted by Government of Maharshtra for admission to First Year of Full Time Degree Courses of Health Sciences (MBBS, BDS, BAMS, BHMS, BUMS, BPTh, BOTh, BASLP, BP&O and BSc. Nursing, B.V.Sc. & AH) and Technical Education (Engineering and Technology, Pharmacy and Pharm. D.). It generally takes place during 1st week of May.

Pre-medical exams:

  1. AIIMS: AIIMS is the India’s top ranked medical institute with limited number of seats and hence is very competitive. Separate exams are conducted for different courses during the month of May and June after which counselling takes place.
  2. NEET: The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test or NEET-UG is an entrance examination in India, for students who wish to study any graduate medical course (MBBS), dental course (BDS) or postgraduate course (MD / MS) in government or private medical colleges in India. The exam is conducted in 2 phases: phase 1 during 1st week of May and 2nd during last week of July.
  3. AFMC: The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) is a medical college in Pune, India, in the state of Maharashtra. The college is managed by the Indian Armed Forces. Admission to MBBS course is on the basis of the NEET. This is followed by an interview and then after the final selection.
  4. JIPMER: The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) is a medical school in India located at Pondicherry. It is a 2 and half hour online exam conducted during 1st week of June.

Other Competitive Exams

  1. Olympiads (IMO, NSO, UCO, IOM, IOS, NCO, IESO, etc.) There are several Olympiads organized by the Science Olympiad Foundation (SOF) such as IMO, NCO, NSO and IEO. These Olympiads are held annually and are considered very tricky for students. Naming a few - National Cyber Olympiad, National Science Olympiad, National Mathematical Olympiad, National Merit Scholarship Scheme.
  2. NEST (Nationwide Education and Scholarship Test): At least 20 scholarships worth 25,000 each are provided to 20 toppers in the test. Certificates are provided to those who score more than 40%.
  3. SAT: The SAT (technically known as the SAT I) is a general test of verbal and quantitative reasoning accepted for U. S. college admissions. The test is required for admission to undergraduate programs of most US universities. Many universities also require you to take SAT-II tests.
  4. KVPY: The KVPY fellowship/scholarship programme, which is funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is held to attract and motivate students across the country to pursue a research career and basic science education.
  5. COMEDK: COMEDK stands for Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental colleges of Karnataka and is a state level Entrance test and floated by the Associations of Medical, Dental and Engineering private colleges for admissions to the Member Institutions. Post Results, first round of Counselling process is held as per the COMEDK counselling schedule
  6. VITEEE: VIT University had conducted VIT Engineering Entrance Exam (VITEEE) 2016 for granting admissions to various undergraduate engineering programmes. Admissions to its two campuses, Chennai and Vellore, will be purely on the basis of the marks secured in the VITEEE

Why Toppr?


Practice more questions

Get access to 3 Lakh+ questions with hints and solutions curated by rankers and academic experts.


Stay ahead of the competition.

Toppr keeps you sharp and focussed on all subjects with its extensive study material.


Get your doubts resolved from the best, instantly!

With Toppr, you can solve all your doubts just like on WhatsApp!


Know where you stand amongst your peers.

Toppr helps you find rankers across the country and learn how they are approaching preparation.

More Features

Start preparing now!

Use Toppr to crack the hardest, toughest exams in India. It's got everything a student needs.

Lomai Narendra Thule

11th, NEET

Toppr lets me practice, track my progress and revise. It's like having a private tutor.

Ebrahim Bharmal

12th, JEE, CET

I wish I had found Toppr sooner. It helped me with my preparation in more ways than I can imagine.

Heramb Patil

JEE 2016

Toppr's ease of use, detailed question bank and tough test series helped me get to where I am today.

Kenil Shah

AIR 2164, JEE Adv 2016

When studying, I have a lot of doubts. Even at 3:30 am, there's a tutor around to resolve my doubts.

Shivani Mayekar

12th, JEE

Download the App

Get Toppr app on

Get SMS link to download app


Sign up for Free

Practice from 300,000 questions, ask doubts and get instant feedback on your progress.