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Class 12

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Dear Parents

The 12th CBSE Board examination is highly competitive. To master critical skills for it, your child will need your constant support.

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Dear Students

You must be committed to two years of rigorous learning to master the fundamentals for the 12th CBSE Board examination. Every successful student spends at least three hours a day practicing questions.

Let Toppr help you prioritise, and get all your concepts right!

What you will learn


You will learn about charges, light waves and their applications, and physical laws at the nuclear level.
View Physics Syllabus Stroke 396


You will learn more about organic reactions and their mechanisms and be introduced to physical and coordination chemistry.
View Chemistry Syllabus Stroke 396


You will add to your learnings in class 11 and be introduced to the three-dimensional world of vector algebra.
View Maths Syllabus Stroke 396


You will learn variations in ecology, environment, the application of biological tools and theories on evolution and inheritance.
View Biology Syllabus Stroke 396

Co-curricular Learnings

Encourage your child to participate in the various tests, but do not pressurise them. Study after study have shown that learning suffers when students are stressed. These tests – if taken in the right spirit – encourage critical thinking, and are a lot of fun.
Competitive Examinations
  1. JEE Main

    An all-India level exam for admission into IITs, NITs and some of India’s best engineering colleges.

    Learn More Stroke 396
  2. NEET

    An all-India level examination for admission into India’s best medical colleges.

    Learn More Stroke 396
  3. JEE Advanced

    An all-India level engineering entrance exam for admission into IITs.

    Learn More Stroke 396

All you need to know about Class 12


Syllabus for Class 12

Syllabus for practicals

Exam Pattern and Grading for Class 12

Competitive Examinations for Class 12

How to prepare for Class 12

  • Preparation Tips for Class 12
  • Study Material for Class 12
  • Previous Years’ Papers for Class 12

Syllabus for Class 12 Stroke 396

Here is the syllabus for CBSE Class 12

Physics Physics
  1. Electrostatics
    • Electric Charges and Fields
    • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  2. Current Electricity
  3. Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism
    • Moving Charges and Magnetism
    • Magnetism and Matter
  4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
    • Electromagnetic Induction
    • Alternating Current
  5. Electromagnetic Waves
  1. Optics
    • Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
    • Wave Optics
  2. Dual Nature of Matter
    • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  3. Atoms and Nuclei
    • Atoms
    • Nuclei
  4. Electronic Devices
    • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  5. Communication Systems
Chemistry Chemistry
  1. Solid State
  2. Solutions
  3. Electrochemistry
  4. Chemical Kinetics
  5. Surface Chemistry
  6. Isolation of Elements
  7. p-Block Elements
  8. d and f-Block Elements
  9. Coordination Compounds
  10. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  11. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  1. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  2. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
  3. Biomolecules
  4. Polymers
  5. Chemistry in Everyday Life
biology Biology
  1. Reproduction
    • Reproduction in Organisms
    • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
    • Human Reproduction
    • Reproductive Health
  2. Genetics and Evolution
    • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
    • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
    • Evolution
  3. Biology and Human Welfare
    • Human Health and Diseases
    • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
    • Microbes in Human Welfare
  1. Biotechnology and its Applications
    • Biotechnology: Principles and its Application
    • Biotechnology and its Applications
  2. Ecology and Environment
    • Organism and Populations
    • Ecosystem
    • Biodiversity and its Conservation
    • Environmental Issues
maths Mathematics
  1. Relations and Functions
    • Relations and Functions
    • Inverse Trigonometric Functions
  2. Algebra
    • Matrices
    • Determinants
  3. Calculus
    • Continuity and Differentiability
    • Application of Derivatives
    • Integrals
    • Applications of the Integrals
    • Differential Equations
  1. Vectors and 3D Geometry
    • Vectors
    • Three-dimensional Geometry
  2. Linear Programming
  3. Probability
science Computer Science
  1. Object Oriented Programming with Python/C++
  2. Advanced Programming with Python/C++
  3. Database Management System and SQL
  1. Boolean Algebra
  2. Communication Technologies
english English
  1. Reading Comprehension
  2. Writing Skills
  3. Literature and Long Reading Text
subject_placeholder_32 Performing Arts
  1. Section A - Vocal Music
  2. Section B - Instrumental Music
  3. Section C - Tabla
subject_placeholder_32 Physical Education
  1. Health and Hygiene
  2. First Aid in two of the following team games: Cricket, Football, Handball, Hockey, Basketball, Volleyball and Softball
  3. Internal Assessment
subject_placeholder_32 Environmental Application
  1. Caring for our Basic Resources
  2. Resources and Use of Appropriate Eco-Friendly Technologies
  3. Initiatives I Can Take
subject_placeholder_32 Yoga
Section 1:
  1. The Nervous System
  2. The Excretory System
  3. The Circulatory System
  4. The Important Endocrine Glands
Section 2:

Candidates are to write notes on the lives and teachings of the following: Vyasa, Yagnavalkya, Chaitanya, Narsi Mehta, Jnaneshwa and Purandardas.

Section 3:
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
  1. The Four Padas
  2. The Five Vrittis
  3. The Five Kleshas
  4. The Obstacles
  1. The Virtues
  2. The Shudripus
  3. Abyasa and Vairagya
Section 4:
  1. Important Schools of Indian Philosophy and Some Slokas
  2. Hetrodox Philosophies
  3. Five Important Slokas

Syllabus for practicals Stroke 396

Physics Physics
  1. Two Experiments (One from Each Section)
  2. Practical Record (Experiments and Activities)
  3. Investigatory Project
  4. Viva on Experiments, Activities and Project
Chemistry Chemistry
  1. Volumetric Analysis
  2. Salt Analysis
  3. Content Based Experiment
  1. Project Work
  2. Class Record and Viva
biology Biology
  1. One Major Experiment from Part A
  2. One Minor Experiment from Part A
  3. Slide Preparation from Part A
  4. Spotting
  5. Practical Record + Viva Voce
  6. Project Record + Viva Voce
science Computer Science
  1. Programming in python/C++
  2. SQL Commands
  3. Project Work

Exam Pattern and Grading for Class 12 Stroke 396

CBSE will conduct the examination in theory as well as in practical, as per the prescribed syllabus. The allotted marks or grades shall be prescribed as per the nature of the subjects. The marks or grades shall be awarded for individual subjects and aggregate marks shall not be given.

  • The assessment of theory or practical papers in external subjects will be in numerical scores. The grades will be indicated on the marksheet.
  • Qualifying marks for external examinations are:
    • 33% at the Secondary or Senior School Certificate Examinations
    • 33% marks in theory
    • 33% marks in the practical separately
  • The Board shall classify all passing students in rank order and then award grades as follows:
    • A1 : Top 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • A2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • B1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • B2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • C1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • C2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • D1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • D2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • E : Failed candidates
You can read about the passing criteria here.
Passing Criteria
  • You will receive your Passing Certificate if you get a grade higher than E in all subjects.
  • If the candidate gets a grade less than E, their result will be withheld for less than a year.
  • You must obtain 33% marks in all subjects: theory and practical in order to be declared as ‘passed’.
  • No overall division, distinction or aggregate shall be awarded.

Competitive Examinations for Class 12 Stroke 396

The following is the list of competitive examinations you can take part in:
Pre-engineering Exams
  • JEE Main: This exam helps students secure admission to National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), Centrally Funded Technical Institutes (CFTIs) as well as the dual degree programme of IIEST, Shibpur. The exam is conducted mostly between the first and second weeks of April.
  • JEE Advanced: This exam helps students secure admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). Only those students who clear JEE Main are eligible for JEE Advanced. Over 2,20,000 students are selected each year, and the exam is conducted during the last week of May.
  • BITSAT: The BITS Admission Test or BITSAT is a computer-based online exam that helps students secure admission to the integrated degree programmes of the Birla Institute of Technology and Science. The online exam generally takes place between the second and third weeks of April.
  • UPSEE: The U.P. State Entrance Examination is a state-level engineering examination in Uttar Pradesh. It is conducted during the third week of April.
  • EAMCET: The Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test, commonly called as EAMCET, is an entrance examination that helps students secure admission to some engineering and medical colleges in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India. Many other colleges offering graduation courses like BDS, BPharm, BSc, PharmD, BE, BTech (etc.) require qualification in this exam, which is conducted during the last week of May.
  • MHT-CET: The Common Entrance Test is conducted by the Government of Maharashtra for admission to full time degree courses of Technical Education ( Engineering and Technology, Pharmacy and Pharm.D.) It generally takes place during the first week of May.
  • COMEDK: COMEDK stands for the Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental colleges of Karnataka, and is a state-level entrance test, floated by the Associations of Medical, Dental and Engineering private colleges for admissions to member institutions. Post results, the first round of the counselling process is held according to the COMEDK counselling schedule.
  • VITEEE: The VIT University conducts the VIT Engineering Entrance Exam (VITEEE) for granting students admission to the various undergraduate engineering programmes. Admissions to its two campuses, in Chennai and Vellore, is purely on the basis of the marks secured in the VITEEE exam.

Pre-medical Exams

  • AIIMS: The All India Institute of Medical Sciences is one India’s top ranked medical institutes with a limited number of seats, and is hence very competitive. Separate exams are conducted for different courses during the month of May and June, after which the counselling takes place.
  • NEET: The National Eligibility and Entrance Test or NEET-UG is an entrance examination in India for students who wish to take up any graduate medical course (MBBS), dental course (BDS) or postgraduate course (MD or MS) in government or private medical colleges in India. The exam is conducted in 2 phases: Phase 1 is held during the first week of May and Phase 2 during the last week of July.
  • AFMC: The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) is a medical college in Pune, in the state of Maharashtra. This college is managed by the Indian Armed Forces. Admission to its MBBS course is on the basis of a student’s NEET score, followed by an interview and then the final selection.
  • JIPMER: The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) is a medical school, located in Pondicherry. It is a two-and-a-half-hour long online exam conducted during the first week of June.

Other Entrance Exams

  • Olympiads: There are several Olympiads organized by the Science Olympiad Foundation (SOF) such as IMO, NCO, NSO and IEO. These Olympiads are held annually and are highly competitive for students. To name a few - National Cyber Olympiad, National Science Olympiad, National Mathematical Olympiad, National Merit Scholarship Scheme.
  • NEST: At least 20 scholarships worth Rs 25,000 each are provided to 20 toppers in the Nationwide Education and Scholarship Test. Certificates are provided to those who score more than 40%.
  • SAT: SAT (technically known as the SAT I) is a general test of verbal and quantitative reasoning accepted for admissions to colleges and universities in the US. Many universities also require the student to give the SAT II test.
  • KVPY: The KVPY scholarship programme, funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is held to attract and motivate students across the country to pursue a basic education in the field of Science, and a career in research.

How to prepare for Class 12 Stroke 396

Preparation Tips for Class 12

You need to know what to study, how to study, how to manage time and where to look for references. Below is a list of subject-wise pointers for your preparation.

  • The best way to learn it is by practicing the problems. It is highly recommended that problems be practised till good confidence is achieved.
  • It is important that you spend more time on working out problems you’re weak at. Divide time for each unit, depending on the total number of marks, and your level of proficiency in it.
  • Besides that, focusing on important topics, such as those given below, will definitely help:
    • Elementary Transformation to Find the Inverse of a Square Matrix
    • Properties of Determinants
    • Matrix Method
    • Limit of Sum
    • Properties of Definite Integrals
    • Application of Integrals
    • Concept of Line and Plane in 3D
    • Linear Programming
    • Bayes’ Theorem
    • Maxima and Minima Application Problems
  • During the exam read the question paper carefully, especially questions on Probability. Attempt the sections that carry more weightage/marks first.
  • Remember biological terms, practise diagrams and be thorough with different processes
  • Biology course content can be serious and may need multiple readings due to its theoretical nature.
  • Using flash cards can be a good memory retention technique.
  • Practice derivations at least 3 times. Give special attention to Electrostatics, Magnetism and Optics as they might prove to be invaluable.
  • Solve at least 3 sample question papers on the basis of the derivations you’ve learned. This will give you an idea about where you’re going wrong and how you could improve.
  • Attempt as many conceptual questions on those derivations as you can. This will give you a better understanding of the subject.
  • Look for new questions on similar context from previous year’s question papers, sample papers and other model test papers.
  • Always time yourself while solving sample papers as it will help you better manage time during the exam.
  • Revise the notes you’ve prepared throughout the year. They will help you memorize the subject in a systematic way.
  • Make a note of various formulae and stick them on a wall or your study table. Try to read and memorise them every time you pass them.
  • Focus on the basics of important topics like p, d and f-Block Elements.
  • Study Raoult’s Law, Adsorption Isotherm, Nernst Equation, Molar Mass Determination, Packing Fraction etc. as they contain important and frequently asked questions.
  • Solve at least 1 sample question from the numerical topics you’ve learnt. This will give you an idea about where you’re going wrong and how you could improve.
  • For Organics, revise few important and famous reactions like Cannizzaro, Aldol, Hoffmann, Friedel Crafts Reaction etc.
  • Pay attention to your grammar, especially tenses, as English is more about expressing correctly than mugging up efficiently.
  • English generally consists of 3 sections namely Reading, Writing and Literature Section.
  • For the Reading Section, read a lot of books, and solve previous years paper and try to stick to the point while writing.
  • For Writing Section, remember the format and always try to write within word limits.
  • For Literature Section, read the lessons multiple times and try to mention all the points within word limits. Also try to make short notes with keywords from all poems and lessons.

Study Material for Class 12

Physics Physics
  • Concepts of Physics by H.C. Verma
  • Fundamental Physics by Pradeep
  • Solutions by NCERT
Chemistry Chemistry
  • NCERT Textbook
  • Modern’s ABC of Chemistry
  • NCERT Solutions
biology Biology
  • NCERT Textbook
  • NCERT Solutions
maths Maths
  • R.S Agarwal Textbook
  • R.D. Sharma Textbook
  • NCERT Textbook
  • NCERT Solutions

Previous Years’ Papers for Class 12

Practising model papers is important, as this helps you simulate the real exam. Make sure that you practice regularly so that you can learn all formulae by heart and solve problems easily on the day of the exam.