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Class - 12 Syllabus

An all-India level exam for admission into IITs, NITs and some of India’s best engineering colleges.
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Physics
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Subjects
  • Physics Physics
  • Chemistry Chemistry
  • maths Maths
  • biology Biology

Physics Syllabus

  1. Electric Charges and Fields

    • Electric Charge

    • Conductors and Insulators

    • Basic Properties of Electric Charge

    • Coulomb's Law

    • Electric Field

    • Electric Field Lines

    • Electric Flux

    • Gauss's Law

    • Applications of Gauss's Law

    • Electric Dipole

    • Dipole in a Uniform External Field

  2. Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

    • Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential

    • Electrostatics of Conductors

    • Van De Graaff Generator

    • Capacitors and Capacitance

    • Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    • The Parallel Plate Capacitor

    • Combination of Capacitors

    • Dielectrics and Polarisation

    • Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance

  3. Current Electricity

    • Atmospheric Electricity and Kirchhoff's Law

    • Electric Current

    • Ohm's Law

    • Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity

    • Resistivity of Various Materials

    • Temperature Dependence of Resistivity

    • Combination of Resistors - Series and Parallel

    • Cells, EMF, Internal Resistance

    • Cells in Series and Parallel

    • Wheatstone Bridge, Meter Bridge and Potentiometer

    • Electrical Energy, Power

  4. Moving Charges and Magnetism

    • The Moving Coil Galvanometer

    • Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field

    • Ampere's Circuital Law

    • Magnetic Field Due to a Current Element , Biot-Savart Law

    • Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields

    • The Solenoid and the Toroid

    • Torque on Current Loop , Magnetic Dipole

  5. Magnetism and Matter

    • Magnets and its Properties

    • Magnetic Properties of Materials

    • Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

    • The Earth's Magnetism

    • The Bar Magnet

    • Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity

  6. Electromagnetic Induction

    • Inductance

    • Faraday's and Lenz's Law

    • Motional Electromotive Force

    • Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study

    • Eddy Currents

    • AC Generator

  7. Alternating Current

    • AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor

    • Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors - Phasors

    • AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor

    • AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor

    • LC Oscillations

    • AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit

    • Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor

    • Transformers

  8. Electromagnetic Waves

    • Electromagnetic Waves

    • Displacement Current

    • Electromagnetic Spectrum

  9. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

    • Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors

    • Refraction

    • Total Internal Reflection

    • Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses

    • Refraction Through a Prism

    • Dispersion by a Prism

    • Optical Instruments

    • Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight

  10. Wave Optics

    • Huygens Principle

    • Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves Using Huygens Principle

    • Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves

    • Interference of Light Waves and Young's Experiment

    • Diffraction

    • Polarisation

  11. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

    • Electron Emission

    • Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect

    • Einstein's Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation

    • Wave Nature of Matter

    • Davisson and Germer Experiment

  12. Atoms

    • Alpha-Particle Scattering and Rutherford's Nuclear Model of Atom

    • Atomic Spectra

    • Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

  13. Nuclei

    • Atomic Mass and Composition of Nucleus

    • Radioactivity

    • Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy

    • Nuclear Energy

    • Nuclear Force

  14. Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

    • Semiconductor Diode

    • Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors

    • Intrinsic Semiconductor

    • Extrinsic Semiconductor

    • p-n Junction

    • Special Purpose p-n Junction Diode

    • Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier

    • Junction Transistor

    • Digital Electronics and Logic Gates

  15. Communication Systems

    • Basic Terminology Used in Communication Systems

    • Bandwidth of Signals

    • Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

    • Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave

    • Modulation and its Necessity

    • Amplitude Modulation

    • Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave

    • Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

Chemistry Syllabus

  1. The Solid State

    • General introduction

    • Crystalline and amorphous solids

    • Space lattice or crystal lattice and unit cell

    • Calculation of number of particles per unit cell of a cubic crystal system

    • Close packing in crystals

    • Tetrahedral and octahedral voids

    • Radius ratio rules

    • Density of a cubic crystal

    • Imperfections or defects in a solid

    • Electrical properties of solids

    • Magnetic properties of solids

  2. Solutions

    • Types of solutions

    • Expressing concentration of solutions

    • Solubility

    • Vapour pressure of liquid solutions

    • Ideal and non-ideal solutions

    • Osmosis and osmotic pressure

    • Colligative properties and determination of molar mass

    • Abnormal molar masses

  3. Electrochemistry

    • Electrolytic cells and electrolysis

    • Conductance of electrolytic solutions

    • Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration

    • Electrochemical cells

    • Galvanic cells

    • Nernst equation

    • Batteries

    • Fuel cells

    • Corrosion

  4. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

    • Introduction and Classification

    • Nomenclature and Nature of C-X bond

    • Methods of preparation

    • Physical properties

    • Chemical reactions

    • Reactions of haloarenes

    • Polyhalogen compounds

  5. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

    • Introduction and Classification of alcohols, phenols and ethers

    • Nomenclature

    • Preparation of alcohols

    • Preparation of phenols

    • Physical properties of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

    • Chemical reactions of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

    • Some commercially important alcohols

    • Preparation of ethers

    • Physical properties of ethers

    • Chemical reactions of ethers

  6. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

    • Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl group

    • Preparation of aldehydes and ketones

    • Preparation of aldehydes

    • Preparation of ketones

    • Physical properties of Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

    • Nucleophilic addition reaction

    • Reduction

    • Oxidation

    • Reactions due to alpha-hydrogen

    • Uses of aldehydes and ketones

    • Nomenclature and structure of carboxyl group

    • Methods of preparation of carboxylic acids

    • Chemical Reactions and Uses of Carboxylic Acids

  7. Amines

    • Classification of Amines

    • Nomenclature of Amines

    • Preparation of amines

    • Physical properties of Amines

    • Chemical reactions of amines

    • Diazonium salts

  8. Biomolecules

    • Carbohydrates

    • Monosaccharides

    • Disaccharides

    • Polysaccharides

    • Amino acids

    • Structure of proteins

    • Nucleic acids

    • Structure of nucleic acids

    • Enzymes

    • Vitamins

  9. Polymers

    • Classification of polymers

    • Types of polymerisation

    • Condensation polymerisation or step growth polymerisation

    • Rubber

    • Biodegradable polymers

    • Polymers of commercial importance

  10. Chemistry in Everyday Life

    • Drugs and their classification

    • Drugs-target interaction

    • Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs

    • Chemicals in food

    • Cleansing agents

  11. Chemical Kinetics

    • Rate of a chemical reaction

    • Factors influencing rate of a reaction

    • Integrated rate equations

    • Pseudo first order reaction

    • Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction

    • Collision theory of chemical reactions

  12. Surface Chemistry

    • Adsorption

    • Adsorption isotherm

    • Colloids

    • Classification of colloids

    • Preparation of colloids

    • Properties of colloidal solutions

    • Emulsions

    • Catalysis

    • Shape-selective catalysis by zeolites

  13. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

    • Occurrence of metals

    • Concentration of ores

    • Extractions of crude metal from concentrated ore

    • Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy

    • Refining

    • Uses of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron

  14. The p-block Elements

    • Group 15 elements

    • Dinitrogen

    • Ammonia

    • Nitric acid and oxides of nitrogen

    • Phosphorus - allotropic forms

    • Phosphine

    • Phosphorus halides

    • Oxoacids of phosphorus

    • Group 16 elements

    • Dioxygen

    • Simple oxides

    • Ozone

    • Sulphur - allotropic forms

    • Sulphuric dioxide

    • Oxoacids of sulphur

    • Sulphuric acid

    • Group 17 elements

    • Chlorine

    • Oxoacids of halogens

    • Hydrogen chloride

    • Interhalogen compounds

    • Group 18 elements

  15. The d and f - block Elements

    • Position in the periodic table

    • Electronic configuration of the d-block elements

    • General properties of the transition elements (d-block)

    • Some important compounds of transition elements

    • Some applications of d and f-block elements

    • The lanthanide

    • The actinoids

  16. Coordination Compounds

    • Valence bond theory in coordination Compounds

    • Introduction and Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds

    • Definition of some important terms pertaining to coordination compounds

    • Nomenclature of coordination compounds

    • Isomerism in coordination compounds

    • Geometric and optical isomerism

    • Crystal field theory

    • Bonding in metal carbonyls

    • Importance and applications of coordination compounds

Maths Syllabus

  1. Application of Derivatives

    • Rate of Change of Quantities

    • Approximations

    • Increasing and Decreasing Functions

    • Maxima and Minima

    • Tangents and Normals

  2. Integrals

    • Integration

    • Properties of Indefinite Integral

    • Integration by Substitutions

    • Integration by Partial Fractions

    • Integration by Parts

    • Integral of the Type e^x[f(x) + f'(x)]dx

    • Integral of Some Particular Functions

    • Definite Integral as a Limit of a Sum

    • Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

    • Some Properties of Definite Integrals

  3. Application of Integrals

    • Area under Simple Curves

    • The area of the region bounded by a curve and a line

    • Area Between Two Curves

  4. Differential Equations

    • Order and Degree of Differential Equations

    • General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation

    • Formation of differential Equation whose General Solution is Given

    • Differential Equations with Variables Separable

    • Homogeneous Differential Equations

    • Linear Differential Equations

  5. Relations and Functions

    • Types of Relations

    • Binary Operations

    • Types of Functions

    • Composition of Functions and Invertible Function

  6. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

    • Basic concepts of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

    • Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

  7. Matrices

    • Matrix

    • Types of Matrices

    • Addition of Matrices

    • Scalar Multiplication of Matrices

    • Multiplication of Matrices

    • Transpose of a Matrix

    • Symmetric and Skew-Symmetric Matrices

    • Elementary Operation of a Matrix

    • Invertible Matrices

  8. Determinants

    • Determinant of a Matrix

    • Properties of Determinants

    • Minors and Cofactors of Determinant

    • Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix

    • Solution of System of Linear Equations using Inverse of a Matrix

    • Area of a Triangle Using Determinants

  9. Continuity and Differentiability

    • Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

    • Continuity

    • Algebra of Continuous Functions

    • Algebra of Derivatives

    • Derivatives of Composite Functions

    • Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

    • Logarithmic Differentiation

    • Derivatives of Implicit Functions

    • Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms

    • Second Order Derivatives

    • Mean Value Theorem

  10. Vector Algebra

    • Basic Concepts of Vectors

    • Types of Vectors

    • Addition of Vectors

    • Components of a vector

    • Section Formula

    • Projection of a Vector on a Line

    • Scalar (or Dot) Product of Two Vectors

    • Vector (or Cross) Product of Two Vectors

  11. Three Dimensional Geometry

    • Equation of Line for Space

    • Angle Between Two Lines

    • Distance Between Two Skew Lines

    • Distance Between Parallel Lines

    • Equation of a Plane in Normal Form

    • Equation of a Plane Perpendicular to a Given Vector and Passing Through a Given Point

    • Equation of Plane Passing Through Three Non Collinear Points

    • Plane Passing Through the Intersection of Two Given Planes

    • Coplanarity of Two Lines

    • Angle Between Two Planes

    • Angle Between a Line and a Plane

    • Distance of a Point from a Plane

    • Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line

    • Intercept Form of the Equation of a Plane

  12. Linear Programming

    • Linear Programming Problem and Its Mathematical Formulation

    • Graphical Method of Solving Linear Programming Problems

    • Different Types of Linear Programming Problems

  13. Probability

    • Multiplication Theorem on Probability

    • Independent Events

    • Conditional Probability

    • Baye's Theorem

    • Random Variable and its Probability Distributions

    • Mean and Variance of Random Variable

    • Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution

Biology Syllabus

  1. Reproduction in Organisms

    • Asexual Reproduction

    • Vegetative Propagation

    • Sexual Reproduction

  2. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

    • Morphology of Flower

    • Gametogenesis in Plants

    • Pollination

    • Outbreeding Devices and Pollen Pistil Interaction

    • Sexual Reproduction

    • Fertilization and Post Fertilization Events

    • Endosperm Development

    • Seeds and Fruits

    • Parthenocarpy and Apomixis

  3. Reproductive Health

    • Amniocentesis and Birth Control

    • MTP and STD

    • Assisted Reproductive Technology

  4. Principles of Inheritance and Variation

    • Introduction to Genetics

    • Laws of Inheritance

    • Linkage and Recombination

    • Sex Determination

    • Mutation and Chromosomal Disorder

  5. Molecular Basis of Inheritance

    • Genetic Material

    • Replication, Transcription and Translation

    • Gene Expression

    • Human Genome Project and DNA Fingerprinting

  6. Evolution

    • Theories of Origin and Evolution of Life

    • Evidences of Evolution

    • Stages of Evolution

  7. Human Health and Diseases

    • Health and Diseases

    • Types of Diseases

    • Immune System

    • Antigen and Antibody

    • Interferons and Lymphoid Organs

    • Disorders of Immune System

    • Cancer

    • Vaccines and Immunisation

    • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

  8. Strategies for Enchancement in Food Production

    • Animal Husbandry

    • Plant Breeding

    • SCP and Tissue Culture

  9. Microbes in Human Welfare

    • Application of Microbes

    • Biofertilizers

  10. Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

    • Tools and Techniques of Biotechnology

    • Process of Recombination

    • PCR and Downstreaming

  11. Biotechnology and its Applications

    • Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    • Application of Biotechnology in Medicine

    • Transgenic Animals and Ethical Issues

  12. Organism and Populations

    • Ecology and Ecological Adaptations

    • Population and Population Interaction

  13. Ecosystem

    • Components of Ecosystem

    • Food Chain and Food Web

    • Biogeochemical Cycle

    • Ecological Pyramid and Ecological Succession

  14. Environmental Issues

    • Waste Management and Related Issues

    • Water Pollution

    • Air Pollution

    • Environmental Issues

  15. Biodiversity and Conservation

    • Conservation of Biodiversity

    • Types of Biodiversity

  16. Human Reproduction

    • Male Reproductive System

    • Female Reproductive System

    • Gametogenesis in Humans

    • Menstrual Cycle

    • Fertilization and Post Fertilization Events in Humans