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  1. 11th
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Class 11 Biology

22 Chapters

Class 11


Class 11 Biology is overall about living things and animal and plant kingdom. In addition, it gives a comprehensive knowledge about the living world. The book has 22 chapters each explaining different parts of organic life. Chapter 1 explains what is the living world and how it works. Chapter 2 describes the different biological classification of organic life. Chapter 3 teaches about the plant kingdom its various classification and characteristics. Chapter 4 is about the animal kingdom, its classification, and its characteristics. Chapter 5 is about the morphology of plants, which simply describe the different structures of plants. Chapter 6 is about the anatomy of flowering plants. Chapter 7 describes the structural organization of animals. Chapter 8 teaches about the cell, which is the fundamental unit of life. Chapter 9 discusses biomolecules that means the molecules that the living organisms produce. Chapter 10 explains the cell life cycle and cell division. Chapter 11 discusses the transport system in Plants. Chapter 12 is about the mineral nutrition requirement of plants. Chapter 13 explains the requirement and use of photosynthesis in higher plants. Chapter 14 teaches about respiration in Plants. Chapter 15 describes plant growth and development. Chapter 16 is about the digestion and absorption of plants. Chapter 17 defines the process of breathing and exchanges of gases. Chapter 18-22 describes circulation, excretory products, locomotion, neural control, and chemical coordination in plants.

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The Living WorldBiological ClassificationPlant KingdomAnimal KingdomMorphology of Flowering PlantsAnatomy of Flowering PlantsStructural Organisation in AnimalsCell: The Unit of LifeBiomoleculesCell Cycle and Cell DivisionTransport in PlantsMineral NutritionPhotosynthesis in Higher PlantsRespiration in PlantsPlant Growth and DevelopmentDigestion and AbsorptionBreathing and Exchange of GasesBody Fluids and CirculationExcretory Products and their EliminationLocomotion and MovementNeural Control and CoordinationChemical Coordination and Integration

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Chapter 1 : The Living World

Life is a unique characteristic of our planet Earth. It is not found to be existing on any other planet but in abundance on Earth. We are surrounded by life in different forms. Basically, we are living in "The Living World". So let us learn a bit about it in this section.

Important topic links

What is Living?Diversity in the Living WorldTaxonomic CategoriesTaxonomic Aids

Chapter 2 : Biological Classification

Classification is a very important aspect of Biology. It has greatly eased the study of various organisms and their evolution. All living organisms are widely classified into kingdoms based on their particular characteristics. In this chapter, we will learn about the biological classification and various kingdoms.

Important topic links

History of ClassificationKingdom MoneraKingdom ProtistaKingdom FungiVirus, Viroids and Lichens

Chapter 3 : Plant Kingdom

Classification is a very important aspect of Biology. It has greatly eased the study of various organisms and their evolution. All living organisms are widely classified into kingdoms based on their particular characteristics. In this chapter, we will learn about the biological classification and various kingdoms.

Important topic links

Introduction To Classification of PlantsAlgaeBryophytaPteridophytaGymnosperms

Chapter 4 : Animal Kingdom

Classification is a very important aspect of Biology. It has greatly eased the study of various organisms and their evolution. All living organisms are widely classified into kingdoms based on their particular characteristics. In this chapter, we will learn about the biological classification and various kingdoms.

Important topic links

Basis of Classification in AnimalsCharacteristics of PoriferaCharacteristics of Coelenterata and CtenophoraCharacteristics of Platyhelminthes and AschelminthesCharacteristics of Annelida and Arthropoda

Chapter 5 : Morphology of Flowering Plants

Flowers, leaves, stem, fruits. These are the parts of a plant we can see. Morphology is nothing but the study of the form, structure and types of these parts of a plant. Do you want to know more about these parts than just how they look? Do you want to know the characteristics and functions of each of these parts?

Important topic links

Morphology of RootModifications of RootStem and its ModificationsMorphology of LeafTypes, arrangement and modification of Leaves

Chapter 6 : Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Flowers are not just pretty things to look at. Other than their beauty and fragrance they fulfil many more important functions. To start with, they are the reproductive organ of plants. They consist of many structures that help the plant survive, grow and reproduce. Let us take a look at the anatomy of flowering plants

Important topic links

Plant TissuesMeristematic TissuesPermanent tissueXylem and its typesPhloem and Its Types

Chapter 7 : Structural Organisation in Animals

Did you know that frogs don't drink water? This is because they absorb water via their skins! Now while we are aware of the human body and its structure all complex animals have the same types of tissue. Let's learn about the structural organisation in animals & some special characteristics of animals such as the frog.

Important topic links

Animal TissuesEpithelial TissuesSpecialized Junctions in Animal TissuesMuscle TissuesConnective Tissues

Chapter 8 : Cell: The Unit of Life

A cell is the building blocks of all organisms, the smallest unit of a living thing. There are organisms made up of just one cell such as bacteria. And then organisms such as humans that have about 100 trillion cells! Let us study in detail about the cell, it's structure and types of cells.

Important topic links

Basics of CellProkaryotic CellCell membrane and cell wallMembrane Bound OrganellesCytoskeleton, Cilia, Flagella, Centromere, Centriole, Microbodies,Plastids

Chapter 9 : Biomolecules

Biomolecules are nothing but molecules present in living organisms. In fact, when scientists say they are looking for life on Mars, what they are actually looking for are biomolecules. Biomolecules come in a wide range of sizes and structures. Here we will learn about Biomolecules in further detail. Let us get started.

Important topic links

BiomacromoleculesProteins and PolysaccharideNucleic AcidBonds in Biomolecule PolymerConcept of Metabolism

Chapter 10 : Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Are you aware that babies come from a single fetus and this fetus is made up of many single cells together? So, basically, we start our lives from a single cell. Isn't this amazing? So, how does a single cell goes on to form such large organisms?Let us study Cell Cycle and Cell Division in detail.

Important topic links

MitosisCell CycleMeiosisDifference Between Meiosis and Mitosis

Chapter 11 : Transport in Plants

During lunchtime, Naina's mother served her bitter gourd. Looking at which Naina frowned and pushed the table across the table. Naina wondered how does transportation occur in humans and plants. Let us find out about transportation in animals and plants.

Important topic links

Means of transportPlant-Water RelationLong Distance Transport of WaterTransport of Food, Water and Minerals

Chapter 12 : Mineral Nutrition

Just like you require certain minerals and other essential elements for proper growth and development, so do plants. Plants also have certain nutritional requirements for their growth and to enable themselves for the performance of their functions. Let us study mineral nutrition in detail, especially related to plants.

Important topic links

Essential and Non-essential Mineral ElementsMacronutrients and MicronutrientsTranslocation and Nitrogen Fixation

Chapter 13 : Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

We all know the basics of photosynthesis. But that was in lower classes, now that we've grown up, its time we all about photosynthesis in higher plants. So, how does photosynthesis in higher plants differ? Let us upgrade our knowledge!

Important topic links

History of PhotosynthesisChloroplast and Pigments of PhotosynthesisElectron Transport System in PlantsLight Dependent or Hill ReactionCyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation

Chapter 14 : Respiration in Plants

I'm sure all of us had this question when we were little. Why are plants considered living when they don't even move? Well, they may not move but they perform essential activities which are important for our survival. In this chapter, we are going to learn about respiration process in plants.

Important topic links

Do Plants Breathe?GlycolysisAmphibolic PathwayAerobic RespirationFermentation

Chapter 15 : Plant Growth and Development

Growth is one of the fundamental characteristics of all living things. Even in Plants, the growth is visible but not measurable easily. Development in plants is actually a sum of two processes: growth and differentiation. Let us study further about plant growth and development. 

Important topic links

Plant GrowthGrowth Rates and Conditions for growthDevelopment of PlantsPlant Growth regulatorsAuxins and Gibberellins

Chapter 16 : Digestion and Absorption

Did you know that a human being on average eats about 500 kgs of food in a year! Can you imagine how intricate and highly functioning our digestive system is to process all this food? Let us learn many more interesting facts about digestion and absorption.

Important topic links

Digestive System - OrgansDigestive System- GlandsHistology of Alimentary CanalProcess of DigestionAbsorption of Food

Chapter 17 : Breathing and Exchange of Gases

What will happen if you stop breathing? Or if your lungs stop working? What is the function of the lungs to begin with? Our respiratory system helps us in breathing and exchange of gases. But how does the system work to do so? Does the system include lungs?  Let's dive in and explore everything

Important topic links

Respiratory OrgansMechanism of BreathingTransport of GasesDisorders of Respiratory System

Chapter 18 : Body Fluids and Circulation

Did you know that your heart will probably beat three billion times in your lifetime? And that eight million blood cells died in your body a second ago? Let us learn more such fascinating facts and concepts about body fluids, such as blood and lymph and circulation.

Important topic links

BloodBlood Groups and Compatibility AdvanceLymphCirculatory PathwaysHuman Circulatory system

Chapter 19 : Excretory Products and their Elimination

Did you know that your body produces ammonia acid as a by-product? That's right. And ammonia is a toxic substance that must be flushed out. In fact, there are many nitrogenous wastes of varying toxicity that our body excretes. Let us take an in-depth look at the excretory systems of humans and plants.

Important topic links

Homeostasis and ExcretionHuman Excretory SystemUrine FormationProperties of Urine and regulation of urine formationFunctions and Disorders of Kidney

Chapter 20 : Locomotion and Movement

Did you know it takes up to 12 muscles to smile? And did you know there are 27 bones in your hand alone? Locomotion and movement in humans is the sum effort of the muscles, joints and the skeletal system. Come, let us understand how vertebrates move around.

Important topic links

Introduction to MovementMuscular SystemSkeletal SystemDisorders of Muscle and Skeleton

Chapter 21 : Neural Control and Coordination

At any given time your body is performing various functions all at once. Each neuron in your body fires about 200 times per second! The coordination is controlled by the human brain which is the processing unit of the body. It is supported by the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Let us take a look.

Important topic links

Human Neural SystemBrainReflex ActionEyes and their functionEar and its function

Chapter 22 : Chemical Coordination and Integration

What would happen you are paralyzed tomorrow? Or what would happen if you collapsed someday during morning assembly? What is happening here? What leads to collapsing? These events occur due to chemical coordination in our bodies. Let us study in-depth about this chemical coordination and integration of the human body.

Important topic links

Human Endocrine SystemPituitary Gland and Pineal GlandPancreasThyroid, parathyroid and Thymus glandAdrenal Gland