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Class 12 Biology

16 Chapters

Class 12


Class 12 Biology is a very important subject for medical aspirants. There are a total of 16 chapters in Biology of class 12. The first chapter is Reproduction in Organism where students will learn about the reproduction which takes place in organisms in an in-depth manner. In The Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants chapter, students will learn in detail about the sexual reproduction which takes place in flowering plants. Human Reproduction chapter revolves around the concept of reproduction in human beings. Reproductive Health is the fourth chapter which discusses the importance of reproductive health and ways to achieve it. Principles of Inheritance and Variation chapter talks about the inheritance and variations of characters which takes place from parents to offspring. In Molecular Basis of Inheritance chapter, you will learn about genetics, genetic variation, and heredity. Furthermore, the Evolution chapter revolves around the origin of life and evolution of life forms. Human Health and Disease chapter talks about human health and the various diseases which affect it. The next chapter is Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production which teaches you about biological principles applied to plant breeding and animal husbandry. Moreover, the Microbes in Human Welfare chapter explain how microbes are useful to human beings. The eleventh chapter is Biotechnology: Principals and Processes which introduces students to the principles and processes of biotechnology. In the Biotechnology and its Applications chapter, students will learn about the various applications of biotechnology. Another chapter is Organisms and Populations and it deals with ecology. Also, the chapter revolves around ecology at population and organismic levels. Ecosystem chapter deals with the concept of the ecosystem in an in-depth manner. Biodiversity and Conservation chapter will teach you about the significance of biodiversity and its patterns, types, degradation, evolution, and conservation. Finally, the last chapter is Environmental Issues which revolves around the problems that are a threat to nature like deforestation, global warming, pollution, etc.

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Reproduction in OrganismsSexual reproduction in Flowering PlantsHuman ReproductionReproductive HealthPrinciples of Inheritance and VariationMolecular Basis of InheritanceEvolutionHuman Health and DiseaseStrategies for Enhancement in Food ProductionMicrobes in Human WelfareBiotechnology: Principles and ProcessesBiotechnology and its ApplicationsOrganisms and populationEcosystemBiodiversity and Its ConservationEnvironmental Issues

Explore all Chapters

Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms

Did you know that when seahorses reproduce, it is the male that carries the egg and gives birth to the babies? Clearly, there is no one way organisms reproduce. In our unique world, organisms have very varied systems of reproduction, some of which might surprise you. Let us take a look at reproduction in organisms.

Important topic links

Lifespan, Reproduction and VariationAsexual reproduction in OrganismsSexual Reproduction in Organisms

Chapter 2 : Sexual reproduction in Flowering Plants

Reproduction is a distinctive characteristic of Living Organisms. All living organisms have survived and evolved over the centuries by virtue if Reproduction. Living Organisms Reproduce and give rise to similar organisms of the same species. Different organisms have different ways and process of Reproduction.

Important topic links

Introduction to flowerMale reproductive parts of flowerFemale reproductive parts of flowerPollination EventsFertilization Events

Chapter 3 : Human Reproduction

Birth is really the most beautiful thing in this world. The fact that we were all once a single cell and now as tall as a cupboard proves how interesting life is. Human reproduction is a very magical experience. We get so happy when a new member arrives in the family, don't we? We play with him/her all day.

Important topic links

Male Reproductive System in HumansFemale Reproductive System in HumansGametogenesis and Menstrual Cycle in HumansFertilization and post fertilization in Humans

Chapter 4 : Reproductive Health

Being healthy isn't just about the absence of disease, it is a more holistic concept. Reproductive health is an important part of one's overall health. It is important that correct information, from reliable sources, is available to us. So let us learn about reproductive health and some related concepts.

Important topic links

Reproductive Health ProblemsPopulation Explosion and Birth ControlSTDs and Infertility

Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Certain people resemble their parents a lot. They look very similar to them. They've inherited their genes. But what exactly are Principles of Inheritance and Variation? What is Genetics? Do you know what Mutation and Chromosomal Disorder are? What is Sex Determination? Let's find out more about it. 

Important topic links

Mendelian InheritanceNon Mendelian InheritanceSex DeterminationMutationsPedigree Analysis and genetic disorders

Chapter 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance

We often hear people talk about how they look similar to their parents, grandparents, or relatives. Why does this happen? Due to the inheritance of genes. Now, what is the inheritance of genes? What is Molecular Basis of Inheritance? Let's find out more.

Important topic links

The DNAThe Search for Genetic MaterialThe RNAReplication of DNATranscription

Chapter 7 : Evolution

We are all aware of Charles Darwin and his theory of Evolution. However, even before Darwin, there were innumerable theories. And over the last few decades, much more evidence has emerged in favour of evolution, that it has become impossible to deny it. Let us take a look at the fascinating science of evolution.

Important topic links

Origin and Evolution of LifeMechanism of EvolutionHardy-weinberg Equilibrium and Divisions of Geological Time ScaleOrigin and Evolution of Man

Chapter 8 : Human Health and Disease

Did you know there are an estimated 30,000 diseases known to man? Some are rare and some are as common as the common cold. The worlds deadliest disease is known to be SmallPox. The study of the human body is incredibly important to learn about the diagnosis, detection and treatment of these diseases. Let us take a look

Important topic links

Health and Disease - An IntroductionBacterial and Viral DiseasesFungal, Protozoan and Worm DiseasesVaccine and ImmunizationImmune System

Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

With the recent population explosion our world has experienced in the last century, one of the major problems we face is of food shortage. To tackle this problem, science came up with many solutions, such as plant breeding, animal husbandry etc. Let us take a look at ways in which we enhance food production.

Important topic links

Animal HusbandryApiculture and AquaculturePlant Breeding for Food Production

Chapter 10 : Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes are the most resilient organisms on earth. Did you know they can survive even the harshest conditions? Whether they are buried in snow or are inside an active volcano, they will survive! These microbes are quite helpful to humans as well. Let us take a look at the involvement of microbes in human welfare.

Important topic links

Microbes in household and industryMicrobes in waste treatment and biogasMicrobes as Biocontrol agents and Biofertilizers

Chapter 12 : Biotechnology and its Applications

Every year thousands of animals are tested for the betterment of the human race, it is all a part of the Biotechnology and its Application. But do you know what is Agricultural biotechnology? What is Medical Biotechnology? What are Transgenic Animals? Let's find out more about it. 

Important topic links

Transgenic OrganismsStem cells and ApplicationsBiotechnological Regulations

Chapter 13 : Organisms and population

Have you ever been bird watching? Or visited a wildlife sanctuary? Watching animals, plants even humans interact with their surroundings and each other is a fascinating study. Ecology concerns itself to this unique interaction between organisms and their environment. Let us explore this further.

Important topic links

Organisms and EnvironmentPopulations

Chapter 14 : Ecosystem

As you observe the beauty of the nature around you, also observe its ingenious. Our entire ecosystem is like one functional unit that runs perfectly smooth. To better study this ecosystem we learn as a sum total of its parts and processes. Let us have a look at a few of them.

Important topic links

Ecosystem - Structure and FunctionEcosystem Productivity and DecompositionEnergy flow and ecological pyramidsEcological SuccessionBiogeochemical Cycle

Chapter 15 : Biodiversity and Its Conservation

Imagine you're sitting on a beach, you notice a tiny anthill buzzing, you get up and start walking on the beach and you observe seagulls strolling around the beach. Not far away, you see a pond that provides shelters to hundreds of tadpoles. All these species represent 'Biodiversity'. So, let us study more.

Important topic links

BiodiversityBiodiversity Loss and Need for conservationHotspots and Methods of Conservation

Chapter 16 : Environmental Issues

Did you know out of the 20 most polluted cities in the world, 13 of them are in India? Environmental pollution is one of the most dangerous problems the entire world is currently facing. It is time we come up with a solution to our environmental issues or face some serious consequences.

Important topic links

Air pollution and its controlWater Pollution and its ControlToxic Wastes and their EffectsGreenhouse Effect and Global WarmingNatural Resource Utilisation