In-situ conservation, the conservation of species in their natural habitats, is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. Conserving the areas where populations of species exist naturally is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity. That's why protected areas form a central element of any national strategy to conserve biodiversity. Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. This involves conservation of genetic resources, as well as wild and cultivated or species, and draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities. Some of these include:
Gene banks, e.g., seed banks, sperm and ova banks, field banks;
- In vitro plant tissue and microbial culture collections;
- Captive breeding of animals and artificial propagation of plants, with possible reintroduction into the wild; and
- Collecting living organisms for zoos, aquaria, and botanic gardens for research and public awareness.