Formation of Petroleum and Natural Gas

In this day and age, fuels like Petrol, Diesel are one of the most valuable products

They are used as fuels in vehicles and aeroplanes, as well as to produce energy for industry

However Petrol, Diesel etc. are refined products derived from a fossil fuel named Petroleum

Many other important things are obtained from Petroleum

However Petroleum itself is found deep beneath the Earth’s surface

Like Coal and other fossil fuels Petroleum is also located deep underground

But unlike coal, it is not solid. Rather it is found in liquid state

This difference arises because Petroleum is formed in a different manner than Coal

Coal is formed from dead plants and trees that lived on land

While Petroleum is formed from the very tiny organisms that lived under water

These organisms were single cell plants or animals, fishes and other small creatures

After their death, their body settled on the seafloor. Eventually they are covered by sand and clay

Over millions of years, the number layers of clay and sand increased over the buried remains

Addition of these layers of clay and sand over buried remains had 3 effects

First effect was that the layers increased the pressure on organic matter

Second effect was that they pushed the organic matter closer to earth’s core. Being close to the core caused the temperature to rise

Finally layers of clay along with water shielded the dead organisms from atmospheric oxygen

As a result, the absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum

The high pressure and temperature also caused the sand and clay to get converted to rocks

Hence, petroleum was trapped between rocks

Due to this phenomenon, the oil extracted was called petroleum

The word ‘Petroleum’ is derived from a couple of Latin words

‘Petra’ which means ‘rock’ and ‘oleum’ which means ‘oil’. Together, they form ‘rock oil’

The extraction of petroleum from the deep underground needs proper technique

For this purpose deep holes are drilled in petroleum reserves

These holes are known as Petroleum wells

It is found both over land and sea

Steel pipes are used to extract the oil from the well

This raw petroleum is sent to refinery to obtain various useful products

In India, there are several places where Petroleum reserves are found

About 63% of the India’s total Petroleum is produced in Assam

Godavari-Krishna river basin and states like Gujarat, Rajasthan also have petroleum reserves

Over sea, petroleum is extracted in Mumbai high located near Mumbai coast

Another fossil fuel i.e. Natural gas is also found in Petroleum wells

Like Petroleum it is also formed from dead remains of marine organisms

And stored just above the petroleum oil in the petroleum wells

The only difference it’s formation requires higher temperature and pressure than that for petroleum

Both temperature and pressure increases as we move deeper underground

Thus deeper the location of formation, higher is the amount of natural gas in it

And it is also extracted using steel pipes

In India, Natural gas is found in several places

It is found in Krishna-Godavari basin and in states like Tripura, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

Revision

Petroleum is formed from marine dead organisms. This formation took million of years

The word ‘Petroleum’ is derived from the Latin. In latin ‘Petra’ means rock and ‘Oleum’ means oil

In India, Petroleum is produced in Assam, Rajasthan, Bombay high, Krishna-Godavari river basin

Another fossil fuel natural gas is also found in petroleum wells and it is also formed from dead remains of marine organisms

Another fossil fuel natural gas is also found in petroleum wells and it is also formed from dead remains of marine organisms

In India it is found in Krishna-Godavari basin and also in states like Tripura, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

Keep studying!