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Management of Water, Coal and Petroleum

Non-renewable or Conventional Sources of Energy

Transcript

  • 0:3In this lesson, we'll study about
  • 0:6management of natural resources like
  • 0:6management of natural resources like
  • 0:9water, coal and petroleum. So first, let's
  • 0:9water, coal and petroleum. So first let's
  • 0:13discuss about management of water. As we
  • 0:13discuss about management of water.Aas we
  • 0:17all know, that water is a basic necessity
  • 0:17all know that water is a basic necessity
  • 0:20for all life forms, but cutting down
  • 0:20for all life forms but cutting down
  • 0:23trees or other human interventions cut
  • 0:23trees or other human interventions cut
  • 0:27down the availability of water. As
  • 0:27down the availability of water. As
  • 0:31rainfall in India occur only for a few
  • 0:31rainfall in India occur only for a few
  • 0:34months, so there should be proper storage
  • 0:34months, so there should be proper storage
  • 0:37of water and for that dams, tanks and
  • 0:37of water and for that dams, tanks and
  • 0:42canals were built. Dams and tanks are
  • 0:42canals were built. Dams and tanks are
  • 0:46used to store water and harvesting rain
  • 0:46used to store water and harvesting rain
  • 0:49water. This water can be used for many
  • 0:49water. This water can be used for many
  • 0:53purposes like irrigation, generating
  • 0:53purposes like irrigation, generating
  • 0:56electricity, etc. While canals are used for
  • 0:56electricity, etc. While canals are used for
  • 1:0transferring water stored in dams to
  • 1:0transferring water stored in dams to
  • 1:3large distances. For example, Indira gandhi
  • 1:3large distances. For example Indira gandhi
  • 1:6canal is used to transfer water from
  • 1:6canal is used to transfer water from
  • 1:10rivers ravi and sutlej to rajasthan.
  • 1:10rivers ravi and sutlej to rajasthan.
  • 1:13But, because of inequitable
  • 1:13But because of inequitable
  • 1:17distribution of water people residing
  • 1:17distribution of water people receding
  • 1:20close to the water resources get more
  • 1:20close to the water resources get more
  • 1:22water and so, they can grow
  • 1:22water and so they can grow
  • 1:25water-intensive crops like sugarcane,
  • 1:25water-intensive crops like sugarcane,
  • 1:28rice etc. While, people residing at far of
  • 1:28rice etc. While people receding at far of
  • 1:33places from water sources, they cannot
  • 1:33places from water sources they cannot
  • 1:36grow such crops as they have paucity of
  • 1:36grow such crops as they have paucity of
  • 1:39water. This caused agitation among the
  • 1:39water. This caused agitation among the
  • 1:43communities.
  • 1:43communities.
  • 1:44Moreover, there were large protests
  • 1:44Moreover there were large protests
  • 1:48against the construction of dams. For
  • 1:48against the construction of dams. For
  • 1:51example, thehri dam over the river Ganga and
  • 1:51example, thehri dam over the river Ganga and
  • 1:55sardar sarovar dam on the
  • 1:55sardar sarovar dam on the
  • 1:57river Narmada. Hence, it gave rise to three
  • 1:57river Narmada. Hence it gave rise to three
  • 2:2problems. First social problems. Due to
  • 2:2problems. First social problems. Due to
  • 2:6the construction of dams, many presents
  • 2:6the construction of dams many presents
  • 2:9and tribal people were displaced without
  • 2:9and tribal people were displaced without
  • 2:12providing them with sufficient
  • 2:12providing them with sufficient
  • 2:14compensation
  • 2:14compensation
  • 2:16and rehabilitation. This increased
  • 2:16and rehabilitation. This increased
  • 2:20friction between the communities and
  • 2:20friction between the communities and
  • 2:22thus giving rise to social problems. Next,
  • 2:22thus giving rise to social problems. Next
  • 2:27economic problems. These problems
  • 2:27economic problems. These problems
  • 2:30arose because building dams consumed
  • 2:30arose because building dams consumed
  • 2:33large amount of public money. Without
  • 2:33large amount of public money. Without
  • 2:36them getting enough benefit from it and
  • 2:36them getting enough benefit from it and
  • 2:40environmental problems. Building dams
  • 2:40environmental problems. Building dams
  • 2:44leads to many environmental problems as
  • 2:44leads to many environmental problems as
  • 2:47it leads to deforestation and thus
  • 2:47it leads to deforestation and thus
  • 2:50causes loss of biodiversity. Since,
  • 2:50causes loss of biodiversity. Since
  • 2:54building dams cause many problems, so
  • 2:54building dams cause many problems, so
  • 2:57different methods of watershed
  • 2:57different methods of watershed
  • 3:0management were adopted. Watershed
  • 3:0management were adopted. Watershed
  • 3:3management emphasizes scientific soil
  • 3:3management emphasizes scientific soil
  • 3:7and water conservation in order to
  • 3:7and water conservation in order to
  • 3:9increase biomass production, which
  • 3:9increase biomass production which
  • 3:12increases the productivity of watershed
  • 3:12increases the productivity of watershed
  • 3:16communities, increases income, mitigates
  • 3:16communities, increases income, mitigates
  • 3:20droughts and floods, increases the life of
  • 3:20droughts and floods, increases the life of
  • 3:24downstream dumps and the reservoirs.
  • 3:24downstream dumps and the reservoirs.
  • 3:26Different methods used for water
  • 3:26Different methods used for water
  • 3:30harvesting are digging pits and lakes,
  • 3:30harvesting are digging pits and lakes,
  • 3:34setting up of rooftop water harvesting
  • 3:34setting up of rooftop water harvesting
  • 3:37system, building small earthen dams
  • 3:37system, building small earthen dams
  • 3:42and constructing dykes, sand and
  • 3:42and constructing dykes, sand and
  • 3:46limestone reservoirs. With these
  • 3:46limestone reservoirs. With these
  • 3:50methods our groundwater levels rose and
  • 3:50methods our groundwater levels rose and
  • 3:53even the rivers came back to life.
  • 3:53even the rivers came back to life.
  • 3:56One of the Asian traditional systems for
  • 3:56One of the Asian traditional systems for
  • 4:0water harvesting is khadin system. It was
  • 4:0water harvesting is khadin system. It was
  • 4:4first started in rajasthan. You can see
  • 4:4first started in rajasthan. You can see
  • 4:7that khadin is an earthen embankment
  • 4:7that khadin is an earthen embankment
  • 4:10built across the slope. It conserves the
  • 4:10built across the slope. It conserves the
  • 4:14maximum possible rain water in the
  • 4:14maximum possible rain water in the
  • 4:17agricultural feild.
  • 4:17agricultural feild.
  • 4:19The main purpose of this system is not
  • 4:19The main purpose of this system is not
  • 4:22to hold surface water but to recharge
  • 4:22to hold surface water but to recharge
  • 4:26the groundwater. As groundwater
  • 4:26the groundwater. As groundwater
  • 4:30does not evaporate. Further, it also
  • 4:30does not evaporate. Further it also
  • 4:34spreads out to recharge w andells
  • 4:34spreads out to recharge w andells
  • 4:37provides moisture to the vegetation over
  • 4:37provides moisture to the vegetation over
  • 4:41a large area. Now, let's study about coal
  • 4:41a large area. Now let's study about coal
  • 4:45and petroleum. Coal and petroleum are
  • 4:45and petroleum. Coal and petroleum are
  • 4:48very important fossil fuels. As we derive
  • 4:48very important fossil fuels. As we derive
  • 4:52energy from them. They're used in
  • 4:52energy from them. They're used in
  • 4:55internal combustion engines which are
  • 4:55internal combustion engines which are
  • 4:58used for transportation. They are formed
  • 4:58used for transportation. They are formed
  • 5:3from biomass degradation. It takes
  • 5:3from biomass degradation. It takes
  • 5:6millions of years to form them. It is
  • 5:6millions of years to form them. It is
  • 5:10estimated that petroleum reserves will
  • 5:10estimated that petroleum reserves will
  • 5:14last for the coming 40 years only. While,
  • 5:14last for the coming 40 years only. While
  • 5:18our coal reserves will last for the next
  • 5:18our coal reserves will last for the next
  • 5:21200 years. So, we can say that these
  • 5:21200 years. So we can say that these
  • 5:26resources are exhaustable in nature. As we
  • 5:26resources are exhaustable in nature. As we
  • 5:31know that both these resources are
  • 5:31know that both these resources are
  • 5:34formed from biomass. So, they contain
  • 5:34formed from biomass. So, they contain
  • 5:37carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. So,
  • 5:37carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. So
  • 5:43during their combustion besides carbon
  • 5:43during their combustion besides carbon
  • 5:47dioxide and water, oxides of nitrogen
  • 5:47dioxide and water, oxides of nitrogen
  • 5:50and sulphur are also formed. If this
  • 5:50and sulphur are also formed. If this
  • 5:54combustion happens in insufficient
  • 5:54combustion happens in insufficient
  • 5:57oxygen, then instead of carbon dioxide
  • 5:57oxygen then instead of carbon dioxide
  • 6:0carbon mono oxide is formed. These oxides
  • 6:0carbon mono oxide is formed. These oxides
  • 6:6that are carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen
  • 6:6that carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen
  • 6:10and that of sulphur are poisonous in
  • 6:10and that of sulphur are poisonous in
  • 6:14nature. While, carbon dioxide which is a
  • 6:14nature. While carbon dioxide which is a
  • 6:18greenhouse gas increases global warming.
  • 6:18greenhouse gas increases global warming.
  • 6:24Hence, usage of these resources with
  • 6:24Hence usage of these resources with
  • 6:27proper guidelines is necessary. Some
  • 6:27proper guidelines is necessary. Some
  • 6:31personal choices can also help in
  • 6:31personal choices can also help in
  • 6:34managing these natural resources. For
  • 6:34managing these natural resources. For
  • 6:37example, by taking a shared vehicle
  • 6:37example, by taking a shared vehicle
  • 6:40instead of using your own
  • 6:40instead of using your own
  • 6:43bike or car or by wearing an extra sweater
  • 6:43bike or car or by wearing an extra sweater
  • 6:47in winter instead of using a heating
  • 6:47in winter instead of using a heating
  • 6:50device, etc. So, in this lesson we learned
  • 6:50device, etc. So in this lesson we learned
  • 6:56that how management of Natural Resources
  • 6:56that how management of Natural Resources
  • 6:58is being done and why it is important.
  • 6:58is being done and why it is important.

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